Sharing is indicated as an alternative form of distribution to the exchange of goods and gift-giving. It encourages a sense of community, saves resources and creates specific synergies. Many factors such as the increase in the use of internet services and smartphones, globalization and urbanization, increasing e-commerce transaction volume, the reliance on online payments, the global economic recession, changes in general attitudes and more attention to sustainability in consumption have led to the development of the sharing economy in recent years. The sharing economy has given the possibility to the people to use the resources efficiently and to distribute them to where it is much needed when they are sitting idle. The shared mobility, which is one of the central areas in sharing economy, is having a growth in the last decade, due to the increased urbanization, high cost of ownership and changes in consumption habits. Even though there are different modes of shared mobility services, the most common one in Turkey is car-sharing. In this conceptual study on car-sharing services based on the sharing economy, a comprehensive literature review is conducted. In these regards, firstly the concept and importance of sharing economy is emphasized and then shared mobility services, and types are discussed individually. Lastly, car-sharing services and their types are examined. With this study, it is aimed to make a totalcontribution to the sharing economy literature on car-sharing services.
Paylaşım, malların değişimi ve hediye verme için alternatif bir dağıtım şekli olarak ifade edilmektedir. Alternatif türleri ile karşılaştırıldığında, paylaşım topluluğu teşvik edebilmekte, kaynakları kurtarabilmekte ve belirli sinerjiler yaratabilmektedir. İnternet hizmetlerinin ve akıllı telefonların kullanımının artması, küreselleşme ve kentleşme, e-ticaret hacminin artması, çevrimiçi ödemelere olan güvenin artması, küresel ekonomik kriz, genel tutumlardaki değişimler ve tüketimde sürdürülebilirliğe daha fazla dikkat edilmesi gibi birçok faktör, son yıllarda paylaşım ekonomisinin gelişmesine yol açmıştır. Paylaşım ekonomisi, insanlara kaynakları verimli kullanma ve boşta bekledikleri zamanlarda en çok ihtiyaç duyulan yerlere dağıtma imkânı sağlamaktadır. Paylaşım ekonomisinin önemli alanlarından birisi olan paylaşımlı ulaşım şehirleşmenin artması, sahiplik maliyetlerinin yükselmesi ve tüketim alışkanlıklarının değişmesinden ötürü hızla büyümektedir. Paylaşımlı ulaşım hizmetlerinin farklı türleri olsa da, Türkiye'de en yaygın olanı otomobil paylaşım hizmetleridir. Paylaşım ekonomisine dayalı otomobil paylaşım hizmetlerine yönelik yapılan bu kavramsal çalışmada derinlemesine literatür incelemesi yapılmıştır. Bu bağlamda ilk olarak paylaşım ekonomisi kavramı ve önemi üzerinde durulmakta, sonrasında paylaşımlı ulaşım türleri ayrı ayrı ele alınmaktadır. Son olarak otomobil paylaşım hizmetleri ve türleri incelenmektedir. Bu çalışma ilepaylaşım ekonomisi literatürüne otomobil paylaşım hizmetleri konusunda kapsamlı bir katkı sağlanması amaçlanmaktadır.
Agatz, N., Erera, A., Savelsbergh, M. & Wang, X. (2012). Optimization for dynamic ride-sharing: A review. European Journal of Operational Research, 223, 295-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2012.05.028
Aguilera-Garcia, A., Gomez, J. & Sobrino, N. (2020). Exploring the adoption of moped scooter-sharing systems in Spanish urban areas. Cities, 96, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2019.102424
Akyelken, N., Banister, D. & Givoni, M. (2018). The Sustainability of Shared Mobility in London: The Dilemma for Governance. Sustainability, 10(2), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020420
Albinsson, P. A. & Perera, B. Y. (2018). The Rise of the Sharing Economy: Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities of Collaborative Consumption. (1st. ed.) California: Praeger.
Allem, J. P. & Majmundar, A. (2019). Are electric scooters promoted on social media with safety in mind? A case study on Bird's Instagram. Preventive Medicine Reports, 13, 62-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.11.013
Altinay, L. & Taheri, B. (2018). Emerging themes and theories in the sharing economy: a critical note for hospitality and tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(1), 180-193. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2018-0171
Bai, S. & Jiao, J. (2020). Dockless E-scooter usage patterns and urban built Environments: A comparison study of Austin, TX, and Minneapolis, MN. Travel Behaviour and Society, 20, 264-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2020.04.005
Balac, M., Ciari, F. & Axhausen, K. W. (2017). Modeling the impact of parking price policy on freefloating car-sharing: Case study for Zurich, Switzerland. Transportation Research Part C, 77, 207-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2017.01.022
Ballus-Armet, I., Shaheen, S. A., Clonts, K. & Weinzimmer, D. (2014). Peer-to-Peer Carsharing Exploring Public Perception and Market Characteristics in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2416, 27-36. https://doi.org/10.3141/2416- 04
Bardhi, F. & Eckhardt, G. M. (2012). Access-Based Consumption: The Case of car-sharing. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(4), 881-898. https://doi.org/10.1086/666376
Belk, R. (2007). Why Not Share Rather Than Own?. AAPSS, 611, 126-140. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716206298483
Belk, R. (2010). Sharing. Journal of Consumer Research. 36(5), 715-734. https://doi.org/10.1086/612649
Belk, R. (2014). You are what you can access: Sharing and collaborative consumption online. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1595–1600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.10.001
Botsman, R. & Rogers, R. (2010). What's Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption (1st ed.). New York: Harper Collins. https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.48-3364
Buczynski, B. (2013). Sharing is good: how to save money, time and resources through collaborative consumption. (1st ed.). Canada: New Society Publishers.
Campbell, A. A., Cherry, C. R., Ryerson, M. R. & Yang, X. (2016). Factors influencing the choice of shared bicycles and shared electric bikes in Beijing. Transportation Research Part C, 67, 399-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2016.03.004
Ciari, F., Bock, B. & Balmer, M. (2014). Modeling Station-Based and Free-Floating Car-sharing Demand: Test Case Study for Berlin. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2416(1), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.3141/2416-05
Ciari, F. & Becker, H. (2017). How Disruptive Can Shared Mobility Be? A Scenario-Based Evaluation of Shared Mobility Systems Implemented at Large Scale. In Disrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities. eds. Meyer, G. & Shaheen, S. Switzerland: Springer: 51-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51602-8_3
Chen, Y. & Wang, L. (2019). Commentary: Marketing and the Sharing Economy: Digital Economy and Emerging Market Challenges. Journal of Marketing, 83(5), 28-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022242919868470
Choi, H. R., Min Je Cho, Lee, K., Hong, S. G. & Woo, C. R. (2014). The Business Model for the Sharing Economy between SMEs. WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on BUSINESS and ECONOMICS, 11, 625-634. https://doi.org/10.9723/jksiis.2016.21.5.041
Cohen, B . & K ietzmann, J . ( 2014). R ide O n! M obility B usiness M odels f or t he S haring E conomy. Organization & Environment, 27(3), 279-296. https://doi.org/10.1177/1086026614546199
Cramer, J. & Krueger, A. B. (2016). Disruptive Change in the Taxi Business: The Case of Uber. American Economic Review, 106(5), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20161002
Deloitte. (2017). What's ahead for fully autonomous driving Consumer opinions on advanced vehicle technology. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/us/Documents/manufacturing/usmanufacturing- consumer-opinions-on-advanced-vehicle-technology.pdf. (Last accessed: 06 June 2020).
Eckhardt, G. M., Houston, M. B., Jiang, B. Lamberton, C., Rindfleischand, A. & Zervas, G. (2009). Marketing in a Sharing Economy. Journal of Marketing, 83(5), 5-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022242919861929
Feigon, S. & Murphy, C. (2016). Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit. (1st ed.). Chicago: THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS. https://doi.org/10.17226/23578
Firnkorn, J. & Müller, M. (2011). What will be the environmental effects of new free-floating car-sharing systems? The case of car2go in Ulm. Ecological Economics, 70, 1519-1528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.03.014
Firnkorn, J. & Müller, M. (2015). Free-floating electric carsharing-fleets in smart cities: The dawning of a post-private car era in urban environments?. Environmental Science and Policy, 45, 30-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2014.09.005
Fishman, E., Washington, S. & Haworth, N. (2013). Bike Share: A Synthesis of the Literature. Transport Reviews, 33(2), 148-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2013.775612
Hamari, J., Sjöklint, M. & Ukkonen, A. (2015). The Sharing Economy: Why People Participate in Collaborative Consumption. Journal of The Association For Information Science And Technology, 67(9), 2047- 2059. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23552
Hampshire, R. C. & Gaites, C. (2011). Peer-to-Peer Carsharing: Market Analysis and Potential Growth. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2217, 119-126. https://doi.org/10.3141/2217-15
Hardt, C. & Bogenberger, K. (2019). Usage of e-Scooters in Urban Environments. Transportation Research Procedia, 37, 155-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2018.12.178
Hartl, B., Sabitzer, T., Hofmann, E. & Penz, E. (2018). "Sustainability is a nice bonus" the role of sustainability in car-sharing from a consumer perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 202, 88-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.138
Henao, A. & Marshall, W. (2017). A Framework for Understanding the Impacts of Ridesourcing on Transportation. In Disrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities. eds. Meyer, G. & Shaheen, S. Switzerland: Springer, 197-209. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319- 51602-8_13
Iacobucci, J., Hovenkotter, K. & Anbinder, J. (2017). Transit Systems and the Impacts of Shared Mobility. In Disrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities. eds. Meyer, G. & Shaheen, S. Switzerland: Springer, 65-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51602-8_4
ING. (2020). ING Paylaşım Ekonomisi Uluslararası Basın Bülteni. Retrieved from https://www.ing.com.tr/F/Documents/pdf/Basin_Odasi/2015/ingbank_IIS_paylasim_ekonomisi_2 1122015.pdf. (Last accessed: 06 June 2020).
Jin, Scarlett T., Hui Kong, Rachel Wu, Daniel Z. Sui. (2018). Ridesourcing, the sharing economy, and the future of cities. Cities, 76, 96-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2018.01.012
Jochem, P., Frankenhauser, D., Ewald, L. & Ensslen, A. 2020. Does free-floating car-sharing reduce private vehicle ownership? The case of SHARE NOW in European cities. Transportation Research Part A, 141, 373-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2020.09.016
Jorge, D., Barnhart, C. & Correia, G. H. d. A. (2015). Assessing the viability of enabling a round-trip carsharing system to accept one-way trips: Application to Logan Airport in Boston. Transportation Research Part C, 56, 359-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2015.04.020
Katzev, R. (2003). car-sharing: A New Approach to Urban Transportation Problems. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 3(1), 65-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2003.00015.x
Kim, Y. G., Woo, E. & Nam, J. (2018). Sharing economy perspective on an integrative framework of the NAM and TPB. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72, 109-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.01.008
Kim, D., Park, Y. & Ko, J. (2019). Factors underlying vehicle ownership reduction among car-sharing users: A repeated cross-sectional analysis. Transportation Research Part D, 76, 123-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2019.09.018
Klincevicius, M. G. Y., Morency, C. & Trépanier, M. (2014). Assessing Impact of Carsharing on Household Car Ownership in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2416(1), 48-55. https://doi.org/10.3141/2416-06
Kopp, J., Gerike, R. & Axhauen, K. W. (2015). Do sharing people behave differently? An empirical evaluation of the distinctive mobility patterns of free-floating car-sharing members. Transportation, 42, 449-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-015-9606-1
Le Vine, S., Lee-Gosselin, M., Sivakumar, A. & Polak, J. (2014). A new approach to predict the market and impacts of round-trip and point-to-point car-sharing systems: Case study of London. Transportation Research Part D, 32, 218-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.07.005
Liu, Y. & Yang, Y. (2018). Empirical Examination of Users' Adoption of the Sharing Economy in China Using an Expanded Technology Acceptance Model. Sustainability, 10(1262), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041262
Mao, Z. & Lyu, J. (2017). Why travelers use Airbnb again? An integrative approach to understanding travelers' repurchase intention. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2464- 2482. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-08-2016-0439
McKenzie, G. (2019). Spatiotemporal comparative analysis of scooter-share and bike-share usage patterns in Washington, D.C.. Journal of Transport Geography, 78, 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.05.007
McKenzie, G. (2020). Urban mobility in the sharing economy: A spatiotemporal comparison of shared mobility services. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 79, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2019.101418
Millard-Ball, A., Murray, G., Schure, J. T., Fox, C. & Burkhardt, J. 2005. Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds. Transportation Research Board, 108, 1-246. https://doi.org/10.17226/13559
Münzel, K., Piscicelli, L., Boon, W. & Frenken, K. (2019). Different business models – different users? Uncovering the motives and characteristics of business-to-consumer and peer-to-peer car-sharing adopters in The Netherlands. Transportation Research Part D, 73, 276-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2019.07.001
Nwaorgu, B. (2018). What is Collaborative Consumption? Platforms and Participation of People in Collaborative Consumption – Impact of the New Technologies. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 9(6), 240-245. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijimt.2018.9.6.819
Pappas, N. (2016). The complexity of purchasing intentions in peer-to-peer accommodation. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2302-2321. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-08-2016-0429
Paundra, J., Rook, L. van Dalen, J. & Ketter, W. (2017). Preferences for car-sharing services: Effects of instrumental attributes and psychological ownership. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 53, 121-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.07.003
Posen, H. A. (2016). Ridesharing in the Sharing Economy: Should Regulators Impose Über Regulations on Uber?. Iowa Law Review, 101(1), 405-433.
PWC. (2015a). Sharing or pairing? Growth of the sharing economy. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/hu/en/kiadvanyok/assets/pdf/sharing-economy-en.pdf. (Last accessed: 04 June 2020).
PWC. (2015b). The Sharing Economy: Consumer Intelligence Series. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.fr/fr/assets/files/pdf/2015/05/pwc_etude_sharing_economy.pdf. (Last accessed: 04 June 2020).
PWC. (2017). Share economy 2017: The New Business Model. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.at/de/publikationen/branchen-und-wirtschaftsstudien/share-economy-report- 2017.pdf. (Last accessed: 06 June 2020).
Ranjbari, M., Gustavo, M. A. & Carrasco-Gallego, R. (2018). Conceptualizing the Sharing Economy through Presenting a Comprehensive Framework. Sustainability, 10(2336), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072336
Schechtner, K. & Hanson, M. (2017). Shared Mobility in Asian Megacities: The Rise of the Apps. In Disrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities. eds. Meyer, G. & Shaheen, S. Switzerland: Springer, 77-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51602-8_5
Schneider, H. (2017). Creative Destruction and the Sharing Economy. Creative Destruction and the Sharing Economy. (1st ed.) Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Schroders. (2020). The Sharing Economy. Retrieved from https://www.schroders.com/nl/sysglobalassets/digital/resources/pdfs/2016-08-the-sharingeconomy. pdf. (Last accessed: 03 June 2020).
Shaheen, S., Chan, N., Bansal, A. & Cohen, A. (2015). Shared Mobility: A Sustainability and Technologies Workshop: Definitions, Industry developments, and Early Understanding. UC Berkeley Transportation Sustainability Research Center, 1-31.
Shaheen, S., Cohen, A. & Zohdy, I. (2016). Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles. UC Berkeley Transportation Sustainability Research Center, 1-120.
Shaheen, S. A., Bansal, A., Chan, N. & Cohen, A. (2017a). Mobility and the Sharing Economy: Industry Developments and Early Understanding of Impacts. UC Berkeley Transportation Sustainability Research Center, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1049/PBTR006E_CH10
Shaheen, S., Stocker, A. & Mundler, M. (2017b). Online and App-Based Carpooling in France: Analyzing Users and Practices-A Study of BlaBlaCar. I n D isrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities. eds. Meyer, G. & Shaheen, S. Switzerland: Springer, 181-196. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51602-8_12
Shaheen, S. & Cohen, A. (2019). Shared Micromoblity Policy Toolkit: Docked and Dockless Bike and Scooter Sharing. UC Berkeley Transportation Sustainability Research Center, 1-31. https://doi.org/10.7922/G2TH8JW7
Statista. (2020). Number of sharing economy users in the United States from 2016 to 2021. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/649459/carsharing-fleet-worldwide/. (Last accessed: 04 June 2020).
Tong, Y., Zeng, Y., Zhou, Z., Chen, L., Ye, J. & Xu, K. (2018). A unified approach to route planning for shared mobility. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 11, 1633-1646. https://doi.org/10.14778/3236187.3236211
Tussyadiah, I. P. & Zach, F. (2017). Identifying salient attributes of peer-to-peer accommodation experience. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(5), 636-652. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2016.1209153
Wang, M. & Zhou, X. (2017). Bike-sharing systems and congestion: Evidence from US cities. Journal of Transport Geography, 65, 147-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2017.10.022
Webrazzi. . MOOOV by Garenta Paylaşımlı Araç Büyüme Verileri. Retrieved from https://webrazzi.com/2020/06/09/moov-by-garenta-gectigimiz-hafta-yuzde-93-luk-artisla-30- binden-fazla-kiralamaya-imza-atti/. (Last accessed: 02 July 2020).
Wielinski, G., Trepanier, M. & Morency, C. (2017). Carsharing Versus Bikesharing: Comparing Mobility Behaviors. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2650(1), 112-122. https://doi.org/10.3141/2650-13
Wilhelms, M. P., Henkel, S. & Falk, T. (2017a). To earn is not enough: A means-end analysis to uncover peer-providers' participation motives in peer-to-peer car-sharing. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 125, 38-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.030
Wilhelms, M. P., Henkel, S. & Merfeld, K. (2017b). You Are What You Share: Understanding Participation Motives in Peer-to-Peer Carsharing. In Disrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities. eds. Meyer, G. & Shaheen, S. Switzerland: Springer: 105-119. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51602-8_7
Yau, A. & M ahn, A . ( 2015). Sharing I s D ubious, I t W on'T Work! Exploring the Barriers Towards Collaborative Consumption of Free Floating car-sharing. Advances in Consumer Research Volume, 43, 746- 747.
Yoon, T., Cherry, C. R. & Jones, L. R. (2017). One-way and round-trip car-sharing: A stated preference experiment in Beijing. Transportation Research Part D, 53, 102-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.009
Yun, J. H. J., Zhao, X., Wu, J., Yi, J. C., Park, K. B. & Jung, W. Y. (2020). Business Model, Open Innovation, and Sustainability in car-sharing Industry—Comparing Three Economies. Sustainability, 12(1883): 1-27. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051883
Zhu, G., So, K. K. F. & Hudson, S. (2017). Inside the sharing economy: Understanding consumer motivations behind the adoption of mobile applications. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2218-2239. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0496