Products, Brands and Countries: Country-of- Brand (COB) and Product-of-Country (POC) Constructs in Country-of-Origin Research

Uluslararası pazarlamada orijin ülke hakkında yapılan araştırmalar, bu kavramın neyi temsil ettiğinin net bir şekilde ortaya konulmaması ve kavrama farklı açılardan bakılması nedeniyle eleştirilmektedir. Çalışmaların bazılarında orijin ülke bir markanın ait olduğu ülke anlamına gelirken, diğer çalışmalarda ise orijin ülke belirli ürünlerde kaliteyi sağlayarak dikkat çeken ülkelerle ilişkilendirilmektedir. Başka bir ifadeyle, orijin ülke, bazı çalışmalarda ürünlerle ülkeler arasında bağlantı kurarken diğer çalışmalarda ise markaları temsil etmekte ve bu durum kavram karmaşıklığı yaratmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, gelecekteki çalışmalarda orijin ülke değişkeni yerine kullanılabilecek “markanın ülkesi” ve “ülkenin ürünü” kavramlarını sunarak ölçülmeye çalışılan faktörü daha açıklayıcı bir şekilde ortaya koymaya katkıda bulunmaktır. Ayrıca tüketicilerin yabancı ürün satın almalarına etki eden diğer faktörler açıklanarak kavramsal bir model geliştirilmiştir.

Ürünler, Markalar ve Ülkeler: Orijin Ülke Araştırmalarında Markanın Ülkesi ve Ülkenin Ürünü Kavramları

Country of origin research in cross-cultural marketing has been criticised due to its varying operationalizations. One group of researchers has considered country of origins as the countries that are the origins of brands, while others have assumed that they rep- resent the widely known countries that offer high quality products. In other words, the association of country of origin either with products or with brands and a lack of a clear conceptualization have caused confusion among researchers. This paper aims to suggest newly developed constructs such as “country-of-brand” and “product-of-country” that can be used instead of country of origin variable in future studies. Thus, the factor that is measured can be better explained. Additionally, the other factors that influence con- sumers’ foreign product purchases are explained and a conceptual model is developed.

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