Objectives: The aim of this study was to histopathologically compare patients with and without diabetes mellitus who underwent pterygium excision. Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, 60 patients with a history of pterygium excision were divided into 2 groups: those with DM and those without DM. Histopathological findings (squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, inflammation, fibrinoid changes, and vascularization) were compared. Results: The mean age of the 60 patients (females, 54.5%) included in the study was 58.6±12.8 years. The mean age was 53.7±13.7 years in the patients with DM and 63.6±9.6 years in the patients without DM. There were no significant differences in the excised pterygium tissues in terms of squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, fibrinoid changes, inflammation, or vascularization. Conclusion: There was no histopathological difference in the pterygium tissue in patients with DM.
1. Kase S, Takahashi S, Sato I, Nakanishi K, Yoshida K, Ohno S. Expression of p27(KIP1) and cyclin D1, and cell proliferation in human pterygium. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91:958–61.
2. Bradley JC, Yang W, Bradley RH, Reid TW, Schwab IR. The science of pterygia. Br J Ophthalmol 2010;94:815–20.
3. Chowers I, Pe'er J, Zamir E, Livni N, Ilsar M, Frucht-Pery J. Proliferative activity and p53 expression in primary and recurrent pterygia. Ophthalmology 2001;108:985–8.
4. Yang SF, Lin CY, Yang PY, Chao SC, Ye YZ, Hu DN. Increased expression of gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in pterygia and pterygium fibroblasts with disease progression and activation of protein kinase C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:4588–96.
5. Gharaee H, Shayegan MR, Khakzad MR, Kianoush S, VarastehAR, Sankian M, et al. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in pterygium tissue of atopic patients. Int Ophthalmol 2014;34:1175–81.
6. Alba-Loureiro TC, Munhoz CD, Martins JO, Cerchiaro GA, Scavone C, Curi R, et al. Neutrophil function and metabolism in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Braz J Med Biol Res 2007;40:1037–44.
7. Onitilo AA, Engel JM, Glurich I, Stankowski RV, Williams GM, Doi SA. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening. Cancer Causes Control 2012;23:967–81.
8. Džunić B, Jovanović P, Veselinović D, Petrović A, Stefanović I, Kovačević I. Analysis of pathohistological characteristics of pterygium. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2010;10:307–13.
9. Chui J, Coroneo MT, Tat LT, Crouch R, Wakefield D, Di Girolamo N. Ophthalmic pterygium: a stem cell disorder with premalignant features. Am J Pathol 2011;178:817–27.
10. Chui J, Di Girolamo N, Wakefield D, Coroneo MT. The pathogenesis of pterygium: current concepts and their therapeutic implications. Ocul Surf 2008;6:24–43.
11. Asokan R, Venkatasubbu RS, Velumuri L, Lingam V, George R. Prevalence and associated factors for pterygium and pinguecula in a South Indian population. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2012;32:39–44.
12. Lontchi-Yimagou E, Sobngwi E, Matsha TE, Kengne AP. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation. Curr Diab Rep 2013;13:435–44. 13. Mimura T, Obata H, Usui T, Mori M, Yamagami S, Funatsu H, et al. Pinguecula and diabetes mellitus. Cornea 2012;31:264–8.
14. Kaji Y, Oshika T, Amano S, Okamoto F, Koito W, Horiuchi S. Immunohistochemical localization of advanced glycation end products in pinguecula. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2006;244:104–8.
15. Shera AS, Jawad F, Maqsood A, Jamal S, Azfar M, Ahmed U. Prevalence of chronic complications and associated factors in type 2 diabetes. J Pak Med Assoc 2004;54:54–9.
16. Nepp J, Abela C, Polzer I, Derbolav A, Wedrich A. Is there a correlation between the severity of diabetic retinopathy and keratoconjunctivitis sicca?. Cornea 2000;19:487–91.
17. Mimura T, Usui T, Yamagami S, Funatsu H, Noma H, Honda N, et al. Recent causes of subconjunctival hemorrhage. Ophthalmologica 2010;224:133–7.
18. Vinten-Johansen J, et al. Sequential patterns of chemokine- and chemokine receptor-synthesis following vessel Wall injury in porcine coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis. 2007;192:75–84
19. Chevalier RL, Forbes MS, Thornhill BA. Ureteral obstruction as a model of renal interstitial fibrosis and obstructive nephropathy. Kidney Int 2009; 75:1145–52.
20. Marcovich AL, Morad Y, Sandbank J, Huszar M, Rosner M, Pollack A, et al. Angiogenesis in pterygium: morphometric and immunohistochemical study. Curr Eye Res 2002;25:17–22.
21. Cheung AT, Ramanujam S, Greer DA, Kumagai LF, Aoki TT. Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract 2001;7:358–63.
22. Dogru M, Katakami C, Inoue M. Tear function and ocular surface changes in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmology 2001;108:586–92.
23. Seifart U, Strempel I. Trockenes Auge und Diabetes mellitus [The dry eye and diabetes mellitus]. Ophthalmologe 1994;91:235–9.
24. Goebbels M. Tear secretion and tear film function in insulin dependent diabetics. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84:19–21.
25. Kaiserman I, Kaiserman N, Nakar S, Vinker S. Dry eye in diabetic patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;139:498–503.
26. Dogru M, Stern ME, Smith JA, Foulks GN, Lemp MA, Tsubota K. Changing trends in the definition and diagnosis of dry eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;140:507–8.
27. Rahman A, Yahya K, Ahmed T, Sharif-Ul-Hasan K. Diagnostic value of tear films tests in type 2 diabetes. J Pak Med Assoc 2007;57:577–81.
28. Inoue K, Okugawa K, Amano S, Oshika T, Takamura E, Egami F, et al. Blinking and superficial punctate keratopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Eye (Lond) 2005;19:418–21.
29. Afonso AA, Sobrin L, Monroy DC, Selzer M, Lokeshwar B, Pflugfelder SC. Tear fluid gelatinase B activity correlates with IL-1alpha concentration and fluorescein clearance in ocular rosacea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999;40:2506–12.
30. Prabhasawat P, Tseng SC. Frequent association of delayed tear clearance in ocular irritation. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82:666–75.
31. Di Pascuale MA, Espana EM, Kawakita T, Tseng SC. Clinical characteristics of conjunctivochalasis with or without aqueous tear deficiency. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:388–92.
32. Kormanovski A, Parra F, Jarillo-Luna A, Lara-Padilla E, PachecoYépez J, Campos-Rodriguez R. Oxidant/antioxidant state in tissue of prymary and recurrent pterygium. BMC Ophthalmol 2014;14:149.
33. Jagadapillai R, Rane MJ, Lin X, Roberts AM, Hoyle GW, Cai L, et al. Diabetic Microvascular Disease and Pulmonary Fibrosis: The Contribution of Platelets and Systemic Inflammation. Int J Mol Sci 2016;17:1853.
34. Jarmuzek P, Wielgos M, Bomba-Opon D. Placental pathologic changes in gestational diabetes mellitus. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2015;36:101–5.
35. Sun LL, Warrier S, Beckingsale P. Pterygium and Rate of Dysplasia in Surgical Specimens. J Clinic Experiment Ophthalmol 2011;2:166.
36. Ooi JL, Sharma NS, Papalkar D, Sharma S, Oakey M, Dawes P, et al. Ultraviolet fluorescence photography to detect early sun damage in the eyes of school-aged children. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141:294–8.
37. Dushku N, John MK, Schultz GS, Reid TW. Pterygia pathogenesis: corneal invasion by matrix metalloproteinase expressing altered limbal epithelial basal cells. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:695–706.
38. Di Girolamo N, Kumar RK, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D. UVB-mediated induction of interleukin-6 and -8 in pterygia and cultured human pterygium epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:3430–7.
39. Kria L, Ohira A, Amemiya T. Immunohistochemical local¬ization of basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta and tumor necrosis factor - alpha in the pterygium. Acta Histochem 1996;98:195–201.
40. Jiao W, Zhou C, Wang T, Yang S, Bi H, Liu L, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province of China: a cross-sectional study. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:658648.
41. Luthra R, Nemesure BB, Wu SY, Xie SH, Leske MC; Barbados Eye Studies Group. Frequency and risk factors for pterygium in the Barbados Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1827–32.
42. Tan CS, Lim TH, Koh WP, Liew GC, Hoh ST, Tan CC, et al. Epidemiology of pterygium on a tropical island in the Riau Archipelago. Eye (Lond) 2006;20:908–12.
43. Detels R, Dhir SP. Pterygium: a geographical study. Arch Ophthalmol 1967;78:485–91.