Mangiferin ve Kanser

Kanser, kontrolsüz ve anormal hücre çoğalması ile karakterize bir hastalıktır. Birçok yeni antikanser ilacı piyasada bulunmasına rağmen, çoğu zayıf biyoyararlanım, yüksek maliyet ve amaçlanmayan yan etkilerden dolayı hayati endişelere neden olmaktadır. Bu nedenle kanserin başka yöntemlerle önlenmesi düşüncesi ortaya atılmış ve “kemoprevensiyon” son yıllarda üzerinde en fazla çalışılan konulardan biri olmuştur. Mango olarak da bilinen Mangifera indica, uzun yıllardır Ayurveda ve geleneksel tıbbi sistemlerde kullanılmaktadır. Mangonun ana etken maddesi kabul edilen mangiferin, C-glukozilksanton yapıda çeşitli farmakolojik aktivitelere sahip, doğal bir polifenoldür. Son yıllarda yapılan çalışmalarda, mangiferinin antiinflamatuvar, antikanser, antidiyabetik, antioksidatif, yaşlanma karşıtı, immünomodülatör, hepatoprotektif, antihiperlipidemik, antialerjik ve analjezik etkiler gibi özelliklere sahip, umut verici bir antioksidan olduğu bildirilmiştir. In vitro ve in vivo çalışmalarda farklı kanser tiplerine karşı geniş spektrumlu etkililik göstermektedir. Mangiferinin yapısındaki C-glukozil bağ ve polihidroksi grupları, temel olarak serbest radikal temizleme etkinliğine katkıda bulunur. Ayrıca proinflamatuvar transkripsiyon etmenleri, hücre döngüsü proteinleri, büyüme faktörleri, kinazlar, sitokinler, kemokinler, adhezyon molekülleri ve inflamatuvar enzimleri modüle etme yeteneğine sahip olduğu gösterilmiştir. Bu hedefler potansiyel olarak kanserin başlatılması, ilerlemesi ve metastazını baskılayarak mangiferinin kemoprevensiyon ve tedavi edici etkilerine aracılık edebilir. Ancak, çalışmalarda mangiferinin oral biyoyararlılığının çok düşük olduğu bildirilmiş ve etkileri üzerine bildirilen çalışmalar ağırlıklı olarak kültür hücrelerinde ve kemirgenlerde yürütülmüştür. Mangiferinin daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi için insanlarda daha fazla klinik çalışmaya gerek vardır.

Mangiferin and Cancer

Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled and abnormal cell proliferation. Although many new anticancer drugs are found in the market, most are causing vital concerns due to poor bioavailability, high cost and unintended side effects. For this reason, the idea of preventing cancer by other methods has been put forward and “chemoprevention” has become one of the most studied topics in recent years. Mangifera indica, also known as mango, is used for Ayurveda and traditional medical systems, for long years. Mangiferin, the main active ingredient of mango, is a natural polyphenol with various pharmacological activities in its C-glucoxanthone structure. In recent years studies; mangiferin has been reported to be a promising antioxidant with properties such as antiinflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidative, antiaging, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antiallergic and analgesic effects. In vitro and in vivo studies show broad spectrum efficacy against different types of cancer. The C-glucosyl bond and polyhydroxy groups of the mangiferin structure are mainly responsible for the free radical cleansing activity. It has also been shown to have the ability to modulate proinflammatory transcription factors, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, kinases, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory enzymes. These targets may potentially mediate chemoprevention and therapeutic effects of mangiferin by inhibiting the initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. However, studies have reported that the oral bioavailability of mangiferin is very low, and the studies reported on their efficacy are predominantly carried out in culture cells and rodents. More clinical trials are needed in humans for better understanding of mangiferin.

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