Koronavirüs Kaygı Ölçeği’nin Yüksek Öğretim Bağlamında Türkçe’ye Uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması

Koronavirüs salgınının başlangıcından bu yana, tıp alanında çeşitli çalışmalar yapılmış; ancak, salgının insan psikolojisi üzerindeki etkilerine ilişkin yapılan çalışmaların sayısı nispeten sınırlı kalmıştır. COVID-19'un yayılmasını engellemeye yönelik alınan önlemler, hem sosyal hayatta hem de eğitim, ekonomi ve sağlık gibi alanlarda çeşitli kısıtlamaları beraberinde getirmiştir. Salgın ve devamında getirilen kısıtlamalar nedeniyle, yükseköğretime devam eden öğrencilerin de diğer bireyler gibi kaygı ve depresyon gibi bazı psikolojik problemler yaşama olasılığı yüksektir. Dolayısıyla öğrencilerin kaygı düzeylerine ilişkin çalışmalar yapılmalı ve mevcut durumları belirlenmelidir. Bu ihtiyaca paralel olarak, çalışmanın amacı, Koronavirüs Kaygı Ölçeği'nin (KKÖ) yükseköğretim bağlamında Türkçeye uyarlanmasıdır. Araştırmanın örneklemi 513 lisans ve lisansüstü öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada, veriler KKÖ ve Durumluk-Sürekli Kaygı Ölçeği (DSKÖ) kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi sonuçları, orijinal ölçeğin faktör yapısını desteklemiş ve uyarlanan ölçekten elde edilen puanları geçerlik ve güvenirlik düzeylerinin yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, analiz sonuçları KKÖ’nün orijinal faktör yapısını doğrulamış ve puanların, katılımcıların cinsiyet, durumsal kaygı ve sağlık durumları ile anlamlı bir ilişkiye sahip olduğunu göstermiştir. Özellikle virüsün mutasyonları ortaya çıktıktan sonra COVID-19'un yayılmasındaki artış, psikolojik ve davranışsal sonuçlarının ve etkilerinin daha uzun sürebileceğini işaret etmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, uyarlanan ölçeğin yükseköğretim politika yapıcıları, üniversite yöneticileri ve öğretim personeli için faydalı olacağı vurgulanmaktadır.

Adaptation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Turkish for the Higher Education Context: A Validity and Reliability Study

Since the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, several studies in medical fields have been conducted; however, the impact of the disease on individuals’ psychology has not been covered enough. The measures taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19 have brought various restrictions both in social life and in areas such as education, economy and health. Due to the pandemic and subsequent restrictions, students continuing to higher education are likely to experience some psychological problems such as anxiety and depression, like other individuals. Therefore, studies regarding the anxiety levels of students should be carried out. In line with this need, the aim of the study is to adapt the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) into Turkish in the context of higher education. The sample consisted of 513 undergraduate and graduate students. The data collection tools were the CAS and the STAI, and data were collected through an online survey platform. The results of CFA supported the factor structure of the original scale and yielded an excellent fit for all the indices. The original factor structure of the CAS was also confirmed, and the scores significantly correlated with gender, state-anxiety and health status of the participants. The scores obtained from the adapted scale were found highly reliable and valid. The increase in the spread of COVID-19, especially after the mutations of the virus have emerged, indicates that its psychological and behavioral consequences and effects might last longer. To this end, the study has valuable implications for higher education policy makers, university administrators and teaching staff.

Kaynakça

Ahmed, O., Faisal, R. A., Sharker, T., Lee, S. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). Adaptation of the Bangla version of the COVID-19 Anxiety Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-12.

Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C.-Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-9.

Akdeniz, G., Kavakci, M., Gozugok, M., Yalcinkaya, S., Kucukay, A., & Sahutogullari, B. (2020). A survey of attitudes, anxiety Status, and protective behaviors of the university students during the COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11(695). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00695

Aktoz, M., Altay, H., Aslanger, E., Atalar, E., Aytekin, V., Baykan, A., Barçın, C., Barış, N., Boyacı, A., & Çavuşoğlu, Y. (2020). Consensus report from Turkish society of cardiology: Covid-19 and cardiovascular diseases. What cardiologists should know. Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi Arsivi, 48(Suppl 1), 1-48.

American Psychological Assocation. (n.d.). "Anxiety". Retrieved May 10 from https://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety/

Andreoletti, C., Veratti, B. W., & Lachman, M. E. (2006). Age differences in the relationship between anxiety and recall. Aging & Mental Health, 10(3), 265-271. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607860500409773

Biçer, İ., Çakmak, C., Demir, H., & Kurt, M. E. (2020). Koronavirüs anksiyete ölçeği kısa formu: Türkçe geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Coronavirus Anxiety Scale Short Form: Turkish validity and reliability study]. Anadolu Kliniği Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi, 25(Special Issue on COVID 19), 216-225.

Bostan, S., Erdem, R., Öztürk, Y., Kılıç, T., & Yılmaz, A. (2020). The Effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the Turkish society. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 17(6).

Brenes, G. A. (2006). Age differences in the presentation of anxiety. Aging & Mental Health, 10(3), 298-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607860500409898

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford publications.

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 1-5.

Çetin, E., Bulğay, C., Demir, G. T., Cicioğlu, H. İ., Bayraktar, I., & Orhan, Ö. (2020). The examination of the relationship between exercise addiction and performance enhancement in elite athletes. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00208-9

Chang, H.-J., Huang, N., Lee, C.-H., Hsu, Y.-J., Hsieh, C.-J., & Chou, Y.-J. (2004). The impact of the SARS epidemic on the utilization of medical services: SARS and the fear of SARS. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4), 562-564.

Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96.

Duan, L., & Zhu, G. (2020). Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), 300-302.

Endler, N. S., & Kocovski, N. L. (2001). State and trait anxiety revisited. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15(3), 231-245.

Erdeve, Ö., Çetinkaya, M., Baş, A. Y., Narlı, N., Duman, N., Vural, M., & Koç, E. (2020). The Turkish Neonatal Society proposal for the management of COVID-19 in the neonatal intensive care unit. Turk Pediatri Ars, 55(2), 86-92.

Evren, C., Evren, B., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M., & Kutlu, N. (2020). Measuring anxiety related to COVID-19: A Turkish validation study of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Death Studies, 1-7.

Filgueiras, A., & Stults-Kolehmainen, M. (2020). The relationship between behavioural and psychosocial factors among brazilians in quarantine due to COVID-19. Available at SSRN 3566245.

Fuentes, K., & Cox, B. (2000). Assessment of anxiety in older adults: a community-based survey and comparison with younger adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(3), 297-309. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00067-4

Gao, W., Ping, S., & Liu, X. (2020). Gender differences in depression, anxiety, and stress among college students: A longitudinal study from China. Journal of Affective Disorders, 263, 292-300. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.121

Greenberg, N., Docherty, M., Gnanapragasam, S., & Wessely, S. (2020). Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. The BMJ, 368.

Günertem, E., Akay, T., Aliyev, A., Beyazpınar, S., Erdil, N., Erer, D., Bayrak, S., Çalkavur, T., & Bozkurt, K. (2020). Treatment and prophylaxis strategies for deep vein thrombosis during COVID-19 outbreak. Turkish Journal of Vascular Surgery, 29.

Guo, X., Meng, Z., Huang, G., Fan, J., Zhou, W., Ling, W., Jiang, J., Long, J., & Su, L. (2016). Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 28033. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep28033

Hambleton, R. K., & Patsula, L. (1999). Increasing the validity of adapted tests: Myths to be avoided and guidelines for improving test adaptation practices. Journal of Applied Testing Technology, 1(1), 1-16.

Holmes, E. A., O'Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., Ballard, C., Christensen, H., Silver, R. C., & Everall, I. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry.

Huang, Y., & Zhao, N. (2020). Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 epidemic in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. medRxiv, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.19.20025395

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563-575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x

Lee, S. A. (2020). Coronavirus anxiety scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393-401.

Lee, S. M., Kang, W. S., Cho, A.-R., Kim, T., & Park, J. K. (2018). Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 87, 123-127.

Lewis, R., & Aiken, J. (1976). Update on attitudes and other affective variables in learning mathematics. Review of Educational Research, 46(2), 293-311.

Lu, Y.-C., Shu, B.-C., & Chang, Y.-Y. (2006). The mental health of hospital workers dealing with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75(6), 370-375.

McAlonan, G. M., Lee, A. M., Cheung, V., Cheung, C., Tsang, K. W., Sham, P. C., Chua, S. E., & Wong, J. G. (2007). Immediate and sustained psychological impact of an emerging infectious disease outbreak on health care workers. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(4), 241-247.

Mei, S., Yu, J., He, B., & Li, J. (2011). Psychological investigation of university students in a university in Jilin province. Med Soc (Berkeley), 24(05), 84-86.

Miles, M., & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. Sage.

Mokken, R. J. (2011). A theory and procedure of scale analysis: With applications in political research. Walter de Gruyter.

Öner, N. & LeCompte, A. (1983). Durumluk-sürekli kaygı envanteri el kitabı [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Guidebook]. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Özdin, S., & Bayrak Özdin, Ş. (2020). Levels and predictors of anxiety, depression and health anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in Turkish society: The importance of gender. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(5), 504-511.

Potvin, O., Bergua, V., Meillon, C., Le Goff, M., Bouisson, J., Dartigues, J.-F., & Amieva, H. (2011). Norms and associated factors of the STAI-Y State anxiety inventory in older adults: results from the PAQUID study. International Psychogeriatrics, 23(6), 869-879. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210002358

Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2), 1-3.

Roy, D., Tripathy, S., Kar, S. K., Sharma, N., Verma, S. K., & Kaushal, V. (2020). Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(102083), 1-7.

Sareen, J., Erickson, J., Medved, M. I., Asmundson, G. J., Enns, M. W., Stein, M., Leslie, W., Doupe, M., & Logsetty, S. (2013). Risk factors for post‐injury mental health problems. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 321-327.

Shevlin, M., McBride, O., Murphy, J., Miller, J. G., Hartman, T. K., Levita, L., Mason, L., Martinez, A. P., McKay, R., & Stocks, T. V. (2020). Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress, and covid-19 related anxiety in the UK general population during the covid-19 pandemic. University of Sheffield and Ulster University.

Sijtsma, K., & Molenaar, I. W. (2002). Introduction to nonparametric item response theory. Sage.

Skalski, S., Uram, P., Dobrakowski, P., & Kwiatkowska, A. (2021). The link between ego-resiliency, social support, SARS-CoV-2 anxiety and trauma effects. Polish adaptation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 171, 110540. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110540

Spielberger, C. D. (1972). Conceptual and methodological issues in anxiety research. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 481-493). Academic Press.

Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory STAI (form Y). Consulting Psychologists Press.

Spielberger, C. D. (1996). Manual for the state-trait anger expression scale. Port Huron, MI: Sigma Assessments System.

Šrol, J., Mikušková, E. B., & Cavojova, V. (2020). When we are worried, what are we thinking? Anxiety, lack of control, and conspiracy beliefs amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Institute of Experimental Psychology, Centre of Social and Psychological Sciences, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Tan, B. Y., Chew, N. W., Lee, G. K., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Yeo, L. L., Zhang, K., Chin, H.-K., Ahmad, A., & Khan, F. A. (2020). Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in Singapore. Annals of Internal Medicine.

Tutku, E., Ilıman, E., & Dönmez, E. Bireylerin sağlık anksiyetesi düzeyleri ile Covid-19 salgını kontrol algısının karşılaştırılması [Comparison of health anxiety level and control perception of Covid-19]. Uluslararası Sağlık Yönetimi ve Stratejileri Araştırma Dergisi, 6(1), 139-154.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1-29.

World Health Organization. (2020). Strategic preparedness and response plan (COVID-19 strategy update).

World Health Organization. (2020, May 4). Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses

Yavuz, S., & Ünal, S. (2020). Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(SI-1), 611-619.

Zandifar, A., & Badrfam, R. (2020). Iranian mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 101990.

Kaynak Göster

APA Mor Dirlik, E , Akcaoğlu, M , Külekçi, E . (2021). Adaptation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Turkish for the Higher Education Context: A Validity and Reliability Study . Bartın University Journal of Faculty of Education , 10 (2) , 430-444 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/buefad/issue/62268/895122

30702 17616

Arşiv
Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Kim Ne Test Ediyor? İngilizce Öğretmen Adaylarının Öğretmenlik Alan Bilgisi Testindeki Başlık ve Konuların Yeni Dağılımı Üzerine Görüş ve Önerileri

Harun ÇİFTCİ

Öğretmen İhtiyaçlarına Dönük Web Tabanlı “Ölçme ve Değerlendirme” Eğitim Seti Tasarımı

Selma ŞENEL, Serpil GÜNAYDIN, Bülent PEKDAĞ

Supervision Beliefs in Cooperating Teacher-University Supervisor Dyad: Implications for Reflective Dialogue to Strengthen Partnership

Meryem ÖZDEMİR-YILMAZER

Bilişim Teknolojileri Öğretmenlerinin Bakış Açısıyla Eğitimde Dijital Öyküleme

Gül ÖZÜDOĞRU

Çoktan Seçmeli Testlerde Puanlama Yöntemleri: Madde Güçlüğüne Dayalı Ağırlıklandırma Öğrencilerin Test Sonuçlarını Nasıl Değiştirir?

Metin YAŞAR, Seval KARTAL, Eren Can AYBEK

An Investigation of Epistemological Beliefs of Physics Teachers According to Different Variables

Tuğba TAŞKIN

Bilgi işlemsel Düşünme, Hayat Boyu Öğrenme Yetkinlikleri ve Kişilik Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişkinin Path Analizi Kullanılarak İncelenmesi

Hatice YILDIZ DURAK, Mustafa SARITEPECİ, Beyza AKSU DÜNYA

Türkiye'de Viyola Eğitiminde Kullanılan Viyola Albüm Kitaplarının İncelenmesi

Ömer Bilgehan SONSEL, Çağla SERİN ÖZPARLAK

Çocuk Hikayelerindeki Problem Durumlarının Stem Etkinlikleri ile Çözümlenmesi ve Problem Çözme Becerileri Üzerindeki Etkisi

S.seda BAPOĞLU DÜMENCİ, Eymen MUŞ, Emin DEMİR

Türkiye’de İlkokul Görsel Sanatlar ve Fen Bilimleri Programlarının Disiplinler Arası Yaklaşımlar Bağlamında İncelenmesi: 1923-2020

Sevgi KAYALIOĞLU, Tuncay TUNÇ