Ötekilik Sorunu: William Shakespeare’in Othello eserinde “Öteki”nin Temsili

Bu çalışmada, Shakespeare dramasında ötekilik, yani yabancılık teması incelenmiştir. Özellikle de Shakespeare’in Othello eserindeki ötekiliğin temsili üzerine yoğunlaşılmıştır. Ötekiler yazarın birçok sayıda eserinde rol almışlardır, fakat her biri farklı bir görev üstlenmiştir. Shakespeare’de ötekiler sıradan yabancı karakterlerden fazlasıdır. Eleştirmenler tarafından çok çeşitli işlevler atfedilmiştir. Margo Hendricks’e göre onlar gerçek karakterlerden ziyade birer karikatür, stereotiptirler. Diğer taraftan Loomba, ötekilerin Shakespeare dramasında sadece söylem figürleri olduklarını ve bir bakış açısı oluşturmak üzere akla getirildiklerini uygun bir şekilde öne sürmüştür. Ona göre, bu yabancılar başlangıçta tiyatrolarda birer “dipnot” gibi yani ikincil öneme sahip gibi görülürken, sonradan Batı ve Doğu arasındaki ilişkiyi irdeleme vasıtası olarak değer kazanmıştır. Bu bağlamda Otello istenmeyen “öteki “den ziyade toplumda çok fonksiyonlu bir rol edinmiştir. Bu çalışmada Otello’nun rolleri bakımından iki boyutlu olduğu öne sürülmüştür. Bir taraftan asimile edilen ve mevcut düzen doğrultusunda şekillendirilen deyim yerindeyse “biz”in düşmanı, diğer bir taraftan da burada bilhassa vurgulandığı üzere toplumun tamamlayıcı rol üstlenen bir üyesidir. Bu ikilem areasında kalan Shakespeare de karakteri günah keçisi olarak resmetme yolunu seçmiştir; fakat onu bu şekilde kurban gibi göstermesi çoktan önyargılı olan seyirciyi tatmin etmez, aksine çoğunluk mağdura sempati duymakla kalır. İnsanların önyargıları da en sonunda bir bumerang misali kendilerine dönerek ters yüz olur
Anahtar Kelimeler:

Ötekilik, Otello, Biz-Diğerleri

THE QUESTION OF ALTERITY: REPRESENTATION OF “OTHER” IN WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE’S OTHELLO

In this article, I deal with otherness, namely foreignness in Shakespearean drama. Particularly, the representation of alterity in Shakespeare’s Othello is the dominant issue throughout. A number of Shakespeare’s plays include a foreign character; however, each of them fulfils a different function. In Shakespeare’s drama, “others” represent more than commonplace “alien” figures. They are ascribed several functions by critics. According to Margo Hendricks, they are caricatures, stereotypes other than real characters. On the other hand, Loomba aptly argues that “others are only figures of speech in Shakespearean drama, conjured up to establish a point of view” . In her view, these outsiders are initially regarded as “footnotes”, that is, they have secondary importance in the theatres; however, later on they gain value as a means to probe the relationship between West and East. In this context Othello, apart from the undesirable “alien” character, undertakes a multi-functional role in community. It is put forward in this study that Othello is two-dimensional in terms of his roles. On the one hand he is “other” who symbolizes, so to speak, the enemies of the “same”. From this aspect, he is assimilated and moulded in accordance with the available order. On the other hand, he is an individual member of the community who undertakes a complementary function that is emphasized throughout. Shakespeare, who stands in between this duality, comes up with the solution of presenting this character as scapegoat. However, that kind of sacrifice does not satisfy the biased audience; on the contrary, the majority ends up sympathizing with the victim. The people’s prejudices show a boomerang effect by turning towards them in the end

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APA Tekalp, S. (2014). THE QUESTION OF ALTERITY: REPRESENTATION OF “OTHER” IN WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE’S OTHELLO . Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 17 (32) , 231-246 . DOI: 10.31795/baunsobed.645492