Modern Irak’ta Kürt-Türkmen İlişkileri

Irak, Kürtler ya da Türkmenler üzerine oluşturulmuş literatürde Kürtler ve Türkmenler arasındaki ilişkileri bütüncül ve tarihsel anlamda merkeze alan bilimsel bir çalışma yapılmamıştır. Tarihsel olarak yoğun bir etkileşim içerisinde bulunmaları, Araplardan sonra Irak’taki en büyük iki etnik grubu teşkil etmeleri ve ‘ihtilaflı bölgeler’ olarak tanımlanan yerleşim alanlarındaki nüfusları açısından bu ilişkilerin incelenmesi önem taşımaktadır. Bahsedilen literatürdeki eksiklikten ve konunun taşıdığı önemden hareket eden bu makale, iki etnik grup arasındaki ilişkilerin nasıl bir doğaya sahip olduğunu ve hangi değişkenler tarafından belirlendiğini sorgulamaktadır. Buna göre, iki etnik grup arasındaki ilişkilerin sıklıkla çatışmacı bir doğaya sahip olduğu, ancak bu çatışmacı seyrin ne zamansal ne de mekânsal olarak homojen bir yayılım gösterdiği iddia edilecektir. Bu çatışmacı etkileşimin ve çatışmadaki heterojenliğin birbirlerini karşılıklı olarak da etkileyen dört temel parametre tarafından belirlendiği savunulacaktır: güç rekabeti, vatan iddiaları, yerel farklılaşmalar ve dış aktör etkileri. Çalışma, bu dört değişken çerçevesinde 1920’li yıllardan bugüne Kürt-Türkmen ilişkilerinin tarihsel ve güncel seyrini ortaya koyacaktır ve sonuç bölümünde bu ilişkilerin geleceğine yönelik kısa bir tartışma yapacaktır.

Kurdish-Turkmen Relations in Modern Iraq

In the literature on Iraq, Kurds or Turkmens, there is no integrative and historical study focusing solely on the relations between Kurds and Turkmens. However, an analysis of these relations is of importance in that they are the two largest ethnic groups of Iraq following Arabs, in that they have intensively interacted with each other throughout history, and in that they highly populate what has been called as “disputed lands” in Iraq. This study motivated by the absence in the aforementioned literature and the significance of the topic examines what the nature of the ethnic relations between the two groups is and which variables determine these relations. Accordingly, it is plausible to argue that the relations between these two ethnic groups often take the form of conflict, but this conflicting nature does not have any temporal and spatial homogeneity. In this sense, it can be claimed that the four major interacting parameters have determined this conflicting interaction and its heterogeneity: struggle for power, homeland claims, local differentiations, and impacts of outside actors. Within the framework of these four parameters, the article narrates the history of Kurdish-Turkmen relations since the 1920s up to today, and shortly discusses the future prospects of these relations.

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Kaynak Göster