Mısır Ordusunun Arap İsyanları Sürecindeki Rolünün Sivil-Asker İlişkileri ve Aktörler Açısından Analizi

Mısır ordusu, Hür Subaylar Darbesinden (Devriminden) bu yana geleneksel olarak siyasette etkin bir rol oynamıştır. Uzun süren diktatörlük rejiminin sarsılmaya başladığı Arap Ayaklanmaları sürecinde de ordunun rolü ve pozisyonu belirleyici olmuştur. Ayaklanmaların başlangıcında Mübarek rejimine karşı muhalif grupların yanında yer alan Mısır ordusu, geçici olarak ülkeyi yönetmesinin ardından seçilmiş Cumhurbaşkanına yönetimi devretmiş; fakat bir yıl sonra başlayan kitlesel gösteriler, seçilmiş yönetimin alaşağı edilmesine yol açan ordunun müdahalesi ile son bulmuştur. Bu çerçevede çalışmamızda şu sorulara yanıt arayacağız: Arap Ayaklanmaları sırasında Mısır ordusunun askeri müdahaleyle neticelenen son kararlarını veya politikalarını nasıl açıklayabiliriz? Başlangıçta protestocularla aynı tarafta yer almak ile seçimle gelen lideri askeri müdahale ile devirmek arasında bir çelişki var mıdır? Mısır örneğini incelerken daha çok Latin Amerika ülkeleri üzerine yapılmış çalışmalardan oluşan sivil-asker ilişkileri literatürüne başvuracağız. Sivil-asker ilişkilerinin doğasını anlamak, ordunun önemli bir rol oynadığı Mısır örneği için temel bir konudur. Mısır ordusu, ayaklanmaların başından itibaren çıkarlarını merkeze alan bir aktör olarak hareket etmiştir. Süreç içinde diğer aktörlerle olan ilişkilerinde değişimler olsa da izlediği politikanın kendi içinde tutarlı bir çizgisi olduğunu söyleyebiliriz. Darbe ile birlikte eski rejim tipine benzer bir yapı ortaya çıkmış ve Arap Ayaklanmalarının başlattığı değişim dalgası Mısır’da ve bölgede akamete uğramıştır.

Analysis of the Role of the Egyptian Military during the Arab Up-risings in terms of Civil-Military Relations and Actors

The Egyptian military has traditionally played an active role in politics since the Free Officers’ Coup (Revolution). The role and position of the military also be-came decisive during the Arab Uprisings, when the long-term dictatorship began to be shaken. At the beginning of the uprisings, the Egyptian military, siding with the opposition groups against the Mubarak regime, handed over the administra-tion to the elected President after temporarily ruling the country, but the mass demonstrations that started a year later ended with the military intervention that led to the overthrow of the elected president. In this framework, we will look for answers to the following questions: How can we explain the final decisions or pol-icies of the Egyptian military that resulted in the military intervention during the Arab Uprisings? Is there a contradiction between being on the same side with the protesters at the beginning and overthrowing the elected leader with the military intervention? While examining the Egyptian case, we will refer to the literature on civil-military relations, which consist mainly of studies on the Latin American countries. Understanding the nature of civil-military relations is a fundamental is-sue for the Egyptian case where the military plays an important role. The Egyptian military acted as an actor centered on its own interests from the beginning of the uprisings. Although there were changes in its relationship with other actors during the process, we can say that its policy followed a consistent line in itself. With the military intervention, a structure similar to that of the old regime emerged and the wave of change initiated by the Arab Uprisings was struck in Egypt and the region, in general.

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Kaynak Göster