Characterization of air quality and sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the City of Calgary, Canada

With concern about fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in urban areas and levels approaching a new Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS), an exploratory study of air quality characteristics and potential sources affecting PM2.5 levels was undertaken in the City of Calgary, Alberta. The study was performed for the economic recession period 2014 to 2016 using hourly concentrations of criteria air pollutants at two monitoring stations (Calgary central and Calgary northwest). The overall mean and median PM2.5 concentrations were similar at both Calgary central (arithmetic mean: 7.7 μg/m3, median: 6.0 μg/m3 ) and Calgary northwest (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg/m3 , median: 6.0 μg/m3 ). Three-year averages of annual average daily 24 h PM2.5 concentrations at both stations were below the 2015 annual CAAQS of 10 μg/m3 during the study period 2014–2016. A multivariate receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) revealed five sources, where secondary aerosol was identified as the largest source of PM2.5 contributing 54% at Calgary central and 42% at Calgary northwest. Other sources included combustion (18%, 39%), traffic (18%, 12%), an O3-rich source (8%, 4%), and a mixed urban source (2%, 3%) at Calgary central and Calgary northwest, respectively. Variations in annual contributions of secondary aerosol, combustion and traffic were observed at Calgary downtown for 2014–2016. At Calgary northwest no variation was found for annual traffic contributions. These findings offer preliminary information about the contributions of different potential sources to PM2.5 in Calgary; and this information can support policy makers in developing appropriate air quality management initiatives for PM2.5 pollution if needed.

Kaynakça

Alberta Environment and Parks (AEP), 2017. Airdata warehouse.http://airdata.alberta.ca (Accessed 1 June 2017).

Alberta Environment and Parks (AEP), 2015. Alberta: air zones report 2011–2013. http://esrd.alberta.ca/air/management-frameworks/canadian-ambient-air-qualitystandards-for-particulate-matter-and-ozone/documents/AlbertaAirZonesReport2011-13-Sep2015.pdf, Accessed date: 12 April 2016.

Alberta Transportation, 2015. Collision, vehicle and license statistics. http://www. transportation.alberta.ca/3119.htm, Accessed date: 15 August 2015.

Al-Dabbous, A.N., Kumar, P., 2015. Source apportionment of airborne nanoparticles in a Middle Eastern city using positive matrix factorization. Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts 17, 802–812.

Aneja, V.P., Arya, S.P., Li, Y., Murray, G.C., Manuszak, T.L., 2000. Climatology of diurnal trends and vertical distribution of ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer in urban North Carolina. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 50, 54–64.

Bari, M.A., Kindzierski, W.B., 2017a. Characteristics of air quality and sources affecting fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the City of Red Deer, Canada. Environ. Pollut. 221, 367–376.

Bari, M.A., Kindzierski, W.B., 2017b. Characterization of air quality and fine particulate matter sources in the town of Hinton, Alberta. Atmos. Pollut. Res. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.apr.2017.07.003.

Bari, M.A., Kindzierski, W.B., 2017c. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Canadian oil sands communities: levels, sources and potential human health risk. Sci. Total Environ. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.023.

Bari, M.A., Kindzierski, W.B., 2016a. Evaluation of air quality indicators in Alberta, Canada – an international perspective. Environ. Int. 92–93, 119–129.

Bari, M.A., Kindzierski, W.B., 2016b. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Edmonton, Canada: source apportionment and potential risk for human health. Environ. Pollut. 218, 219–229.

Burnett, R.T., Smith-Doiron, M., Stieb, D., Cakmak, S., Brook, J.R., 1999. Effects of particulate and gaseous air pollution on cardiorespiratory hospitalizations. Arch. Environ. Health 54 (2), 130–139.

Burnett, R.T., Stieb, D., Brook, J.R., Cakmak, S., Dales, R., Raizenne, M., Vincent, R., Dann, T., 2004. Associations between short-term changes in nitrogen dioxide and mortality in Canadian cities. Arch. Environ. Health 59 (5), 228–236.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), 2012. Guidance Document on Achievement Determination Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, MB.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), 2000. Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and Ozone. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, MB.

Cheng, L., Sandhu, H.S., Angle, R.P., McDonald, K.M., Myrick, R.H., 2000. Rural particulate matter in Alberta, Canada. Atmos. Environ. 34, 3365–3372.

Cheng, L., Sandhu, H.S., Angle, R.P., Myrick, R.H., 1998. Characteristics of inhalable particulate matter in Alberta cities – results for 1988 to 1989 summers. Atmos. Environ. 32, 3835–3844.

Cheung, H.-C., Wang, T., Baumann, K., Guo, H., 2005. Influence of regional pollution outflow on the concentrations of fine particulate matter and visibility in the coastal area of southern China. Atmos. Environ. 39, 6463–6474.

City of Calgary, 2015. 2015 Civic Census Results Book. http://www.calgary.ca/CA/CityClerks/Pages/Election-and-information-services/Civic-Census/Civic-Census.aspx, Accessed date: 15 August 2015.

Cooper, C.D., Alley, F.C., 2002. Air Pollution Control – a Design Approach, third ed. Waveland Press, Inc, Long Grove, NJ.

CWFIS, 2015. Canadian Wildland Fire Information System. http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca, Accessed date: 15 December 2016.

Draxler, R.R., Rolph, G.D., 2003. HYSPLIT (Hybrid single-particle lagrangian integrated trajectory) model. NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD.

ECCC (Environment and Climate Change Canada), 2017a. NAPS data products. Available at: http://maps-cartes.ec.gc.ca/rnspa-naps/data.aspx, Accessed date: 15 July 2017.

ECCC, 2017b. Canadian climate normals 1981-2010 station data. http://climate.weather. gc.ca/climate_normals/results_1981_2010_e.html, Accessed date: 4 August 2017.

ECCC, 2017c. National pollutant release inventory. Tracking pollution in Canada. https:// www.ec.gc.ca/inrp-npri, Accessed date: 15 July 2017.

Environment Canada, 2004. National Air Pollution Surveillance Network Quality Assurance and Quality Control Guidelines. Report AAQD 2004-1, Ottawa, ON. Galarneau, E., Wang, D., Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Siu, M., Celo, V., Tardif, M., et al., 2016.

Air toxics in Canada measured by the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) program and their relation to ambient air quality guidelines. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 66, 184–200.

Harley, R.A., Hannigan, M.P., Cass, G.R., 1992. Respeciation of organic gas emissions and the detection of excess unburned gasoline in the atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 2395–2408.

Hellebust, S., Allanic, A., O'Connor, I.P., Wenger, J.C., Sodeau, J.R., 2010. The use of realtime monitoring data to evaluate major sources of airborne particulate matter. Atmos. Environ. 44, 1116–1125.

Hicks, R.B., Mathews, T., 1979. Impact of Chinooks on Calgary's air quality: acoustic sounder observations of atmospheric stability. Water Air Soil Pollut. 11, 159–172.

Hicks, R.B., Smith, D., Irwin, P.J., Mathews, T., 1977. Preliminary results of atmospheric acoustic sounding at Calgary. Bound. Layer Metrol. 12, 201–212.

Hoyle, C.R., Boy, M., Donahue, N.M., Fry, J.L., Glasius, M., Guenther, A., Hallar, A.G., Hartz, K.H., Petters, M.D., Petäjä, T., Rosenoern, T., Sullivan, A.P., 2011. A review of the anthropogenic influence on biogenic secondary organic aerosol. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 321–343.

Hsu, Y.-K., Holsen, T.M., Hopke, P.K., 2003. Comparison of hybrid receptor models to locate PCB sources in Chicago. Atmos. Environ. 37, 545–562.

Kasumba, J., Hopke, P.K., Chalupa, D.C., Utell, M.J., 2009. Comparison of sources of submicron particle number concentrations measured at two sites in Rochester, NY. Sci. Total Environ. 407, 5071–5084.

Khan, M.F., Latif, M.T., Juneng, L., Amil, N., Dadzir, M.S.M., Hoque, H.M.S., 2015.

Physicochemical factors and sources of particulate matter at residential urban environment in Kuala Lumpur. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 65, 958–969.

Liu, Y., Shao, M., Fu, L., Lu, S., Zeng, L., Tang, D., 2008. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I. Atmos. Environ. 42, 6247–6260.

Lovett, G.M., 1994. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients and pollutants in North America: an ecological perspective. Ecol. Appl. 4, 629–650.

McCulloch, A., Aucott, M.L., Benkovitz, C.M., Graedel, T.E., Kleiman, G., Midgley, P.M., Li, Y.-F., 1999. Global emissions of hydrogen chloride and chloromethane from coal combustion, incineration and industrial activities: reactive chlorine emissions inventory. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (D7), 8391–8403.

Myrick, R.H., Sakiyama, S.K., Angle, R.P., Sandhu, H.S., 1994. Seasonal mixing heights and inversions at Edmonton, Alberta. Atmos. Environ. 28, 723–729.

Municipal census, 2017. 2017 civic census results. http://www.calgary.ca/CA/cityclerks/Pages/Election-and-information-services/Civic-Census/2017-Results.aspx, Accessed date: 25 July 2017.

Novus International, 2013. All Source Pollutant Emissions Inventory for the Calgary Region Airshed Zone (CRAZ) – Special Allocation Project (2012 – 2013). Final Draft, Guelph, ON.

Pope III, C.A., Ezzati, M., Dockery, D.W., 2014. Fine particulate air pollution and life expectancies in the United States: the role of influential observations. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 63, 129–132.

Ruidavets, J.B., Cournot, M., Cassadou, S., Giroux, M., Meybeck, M., Ferrieres, J., 2005. Ozone air pollution is associated with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 111 (5), 563–569.

Schauer, J.J., Kleeman, M.J., Cass, G.R., Simoneit, B.R.T., 1999. Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 2. C1 through C30 organic compounds from medium duty diesel trucks. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 1578–1587.

Schulz, J., Kindzierski, W.B., 2001. Characterization and Source Apportionment of Regional Background Inhalable Particulate Matter in Alberta. SFM Network Project: Analysis of Particulate Matter Loading in Community Ambient Air. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, pp. 26.

Seibert, P., Kromp-Kolb, H., Baltensperger, U., Jost, D.T., Schwikowski, M., Kasper, A., Puxbaum, H., 1994. Trajectory analysis of aerosol measurements at high alpine sites. In: B.P.M., B.P., C.T., S.W. (Eds.), Transport and Transformation of Pollutants in the Troposphere. Academic Publishing, Den Haag, pp. 689–693.

Singh, H.B., Ludwig, F.L., Johnson, W.B., 1978. Tropospheric ozone: concentrations and variabilities in clean remote atmospheres. Atmos. Environ. 12, 2185–2196.

Skyllakou, K., Murphy, B.N., Megaritis, A.G., Fountoukis, C., Pandis, S.N., 2014. Contributions of local and regional sources to fine PM in the megacity of Paris. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 2343–2352.

Sowlat, M.H., Hasheminassab, S., Sioutas, C., 2016. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 4849–4866.

Statistics Canada, 2016. 2016 Census topic: population and dwelling counts. http:// www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/rt-td/population-eng.cfm, Accessed date: 25 July 2017.

Steinbacher, M., Henne, S., Dommen, J., Wiesen, P., Prevot, A.S.H., 2004. Nocturnal trans-alpine transport of ozone and its effects on air quality on the Swiss Plateau. Atmos. Environ. 38, 4539–4550.

Sun, Y., Zhang, J., Pan, Y., Wang, Y., Liao, T., Song, T., 2014. Observations of air quality on the outskirts of an urban agglomeration during the implementation of pollution reduction measures. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 5, 789–795.

Taylor, G.E., Hanson, P.J., 1992. Forest trees and tropospheric ozone: role of canopy deposition and leaf uptake in developing exposure-response relationships. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 42, 255–273.

Thimmaiah, D., Hovorka, J., Hopke, P.K., 2009. Source apportionment of winter submicron Prague aerosols from combined particle number size distribution and gaseous composition data. Aerosol. Air Quality Res. 9, 209–236.

Turpin, B.J., Huntzicker, J.J., 1995. Identification of secondary organic aerosol episodes and quantitation of primary and secondary organic aerosol concentrations during SCAQS. Atmos. Environ. 29, 3527–3544.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), 2014. EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) 5.0 Fundamentals and User Guide. EPA 600/R-14/108.USEPA Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), 2015. List of designated reference and equivalent methods. https://www3.epa.gov/ttnamti1/files/ambient/ criteria/reference-equivalent-methods-list.pdf.

Uria-telelaetxe, I., Carslaw, D.C., 2014. Conditional bivariate probability function for source identification. Environ. Model. Software 59, 1–9.

Wallace, L.A., 1989. The total exposure assessment methodology (TEAM) study: an analysis of exposures, sources and risks associated with four volatile organic chemicals. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 8, 883–895.

Wang, D., Fuentes, J.D., Travers, D., Dann, T., Conolly, T., 2005. Non-methane hydrocarbons and carbonyls in the lower fraser valley during PACIFIC2 2001. Atmos. Environ. 39, 5261–5272.

Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Fujita, E.M., 2001. Review of volatile organic compound source apportionment by chemical mass balance. Atmos. Environ. 35, 1567–1584.

Weichenthal, S., Villeneuve, P.J., Burnett, R.T., van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R.V., Jones, R.R., DellaValle, C.T., Sandler, D.P., Ward, M.H., Hoppin, J.A., 2014. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter: association with nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 609–615.

Yue, W., Stölzel, M., Cyrys, J., Pity, M., Heinrich, J., Kreyling, W.G., Wichmann, H.-E., Peters, A., Wang, S., Hopke, P.K., 2008. Source apportionment of ambient fine particle size distribution using positive matrix factorization in Erfurt, Germany. Sci. Total Environ. 398, 133–144.

Zanobetti, A., Dominici, F., Wang, Y., Schwartz, J.D., 2014. A national case-crossover analysis of the short-time effect of PM2.5 on hospitalizations and mortality in subjects with diabetes and neurological disorders. Environ. Health 13 (38). http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1186/1476-069X-13-38.

Zhang, J., Rao, S.T., 1999. The role of vertical mixing in the temporal evolution of ground-level ozone concentrations. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1674–1691.

Kaynak Göster