Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate correlation of gross morphology of human placenta with birth weight in normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies obtained from Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institutional based comparative cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 term placentas (37 to 42 weeks of gestation) between October and January 2015. 150 placentas from normotensive and 50 from pre-eclamptic pregnancies were collected and examined for weight, diameter, thickness and number of cotyledon. Birth weight and placental-fetal weight ratio also measured. Results: The mean birth weight in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (2.6 kg) was significantly (p=0.0001) reduced as compared to birth weight (3.1 kg) in normotensive pregnancies. However, placental-fetal weight ratio had no significant (p=0.658) difference between normotensive (6.34:1) and pre-eclamptic (6.41:1) groups. Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (r=0.572), diameter (r=0.583), thickness (r=0.192) and number of cotyledons (r=0.647) in the pre-eclamptic group. Birth weight was also correlated with placental weight (r=0.572), diameter (r=0.583), and number of cotyledons (r=0.647) in the normotensive group. However, no correlation was found between placental thickness (r=0.192) and birth weight in the normotensive group. Conclusion: Birth weight was significantly reduced in pre-eclamptic pregnancies as compared to normotensive pregnancies. Morphology of placenta such as weight, diameter and number of cotyledons were correlated with birth weight in both groups, but placental thickness was only correlated with birth weight in pre-eclampsia, but not in normotensive group. Placental-fetal weight ratio had not significant difference between the groups. Examination of placental morphology prenatally using ultrasound and observation immediately after delivery is important for better management of this and subsequent pregnancies.
Mardi K, Sharma J. Histopathological evaluation of placentas in IUGR pregnancies. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2003;2:1–4.
Jain A, Sharma D, Sharma V, Baweja S, Jain R. Study of placental weight in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies and its correlation with birth weight. International Journal of Medical Research and Review 2016;4:2–8.
Goswami P, Memon S, Rathore MI. Foeto-placental weight relationship in normal pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by pregnancy induced hypertension and abruption of placentae. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2015;3:1081– 4.
Sirpurkar M, Anjankar VP. Study of correlation between placental morphology and adverse perinatal outcome in different conditions affecting pregnancy. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology 2015;4:1165–8.
Kambale T, Iqbal B, Ramraje S, Swaimul K, Salve S. Placental morphology and fetal implications in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy- induced hypertension. Medical Journal of DY Patil University 2016;9:341–7.
Gupta C, Harode HA, D’souza AS, Sharma A. A morphological and morphometric study of placenta with its clinical implications. Tropical Journal of Medical Research 2015;18:85–8.
Susmita S, Lopamudra N, Shashi SB, Prafulla KC. Morphometric study of placenta of full term new born & its relation to fetal weight: a study in Tertiary Care Hospital of Odisha. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences 2015;4:742–7.
Londhe PS, Mane AB. Morphometric study of placenta and its correlation in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2011;2:429–37.
Aremu AA, Atanda OO, Adeomi AA. Newborn birth weight and placental parameters in normal human pregnancies. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2013;30:23–7.
Sankar KD, Bhanu PS, Ramalingam K, Kiran S, Ramakrishna BA. Histomorphological and morphometrical changes of placental terminal villi of normotensive and preeclamptic mothers. Anat Cell Biol 2013;46:285–90.
Gundalli SM, Kolekar R, Sunita VN, Nandurkar V. Placenta in eclampsia and pre-eclampsia. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 2015;14:46–51.
Shevade S, Arole V, Vaishaly B, Paranjape V. Placental morphology and fetal outcome in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancies. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 2015;14:11–5.
Kaur P, Kaushal S, Singh K, Sharma A. Placental weight, birth weight and fetal outcme in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancies. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 2013;3:30–34.
Singh S, Gugapriya TS. A cross sectional morphometric study of hypertensive with normal placentae and its correkation with fetal outcome. International Journal of Anatomy and Research 2014;2:437–42.
Raghavendra AY, Vinay KV, Pai V. A study of placental weight and fetal outcome in different grades of pregnancy induced hypertension. International Journal of Anatomy and Research 2014;2:625–9.
Pathak S, Sebire NJ, Hook L, Hackett G, Murdoch E. Relationship between placental morphology and histological findings in an unselected population near term. Virchows Arch 2011;459:11–20.
Ullah E. Unfavorable effects of pre-eclampsia on the morphology of the placenta. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2013;7:207–11.
Pathak S. Morphological and histological placental characteristics in relation to pregnancy outcome in an unselected population. Doctoral dissertation, University of East Anglia, Norwchich, Norfolk, UK, 2010.
Girish BL, Nandagopal KM, Padmini CP, Mahesh SH, Ragunatha S, Srinath S. A morphometric comparative study of placenta in normal and preeclampsia pregnancies delivering at 36 to 38 weeks of gestation and its impact on birth weight. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences 2015;4:14444–50.