Turizmin Yöre Halkının Yaşam Kalitesine Etkileri: Çeşme İlçesi Örneği

Bu çalışmada önemli bir turizm destinasyonu olan İzmir’in Çeşme ilçesinde yaşayan yöre halkının yaşam kalitesinde turizmin etkileri araştırılmıştır. Araştırmada nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden alan araştırması benimsenmiş, verilerin toplanmasında anket tekniği kullanılmıştır. Veriler kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle Çeşme’de ikamet eden yöre halkından yüz yüze toplanmıştır. Turizmin etkileri; ekonomik, kültürel, sosyal ve çevresel etkiler olarak ele alınmıştır. Yaşam kalitesi boyutları da toplumsal yaşam, sağlık-güvenlik ve ekonomik durum olarak incelenmiştir. Çalışmada, faktör analizi, t-testi, ANOVA, korelasyon analizi uygulanmış, turizmin yaşam kalitesine etkisini belirlemek için regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın bulgularına göre, turizmin ekonomik, kültürel ve sosyal etkilerinin Çeşme’de yaşayan yöre halkının yaşam kalitesini etkilediği, ancak turizmin çevresel etkilerinin yaşam kalitesini etkilemediği belirlenmiştir.

The Effect of Tourism on The Community Residents Quality of Life: The Case of Çeşme

In the study, the effects of tourism on the quality of life of the people living in İzmir’s Cesme district, which is an important tourism destination were investigated. In the research, field research from quantitative research methods was used and data were collected by questionnaire technique. The samples were gathered face to face from the local people residing in Çeşme by convenience sampling method. Tourism effects were taken as; economic, cultural, social and environmental impacts. Dimensions of quality of life examined as; social, health-safety and economics. In the study, factor analysis, t-test, ANOVA, correlation analyzes were applied and regression analysis was used to determine the effect on the tourism quality of life. According to the findings of the study, the economic, cultural and social effects of tourism were determined that the local people living in Çeşme affected the quality of life but the environmental effects of tourism did not affect the quality of life.

Kaynakça

Almeida-García, F., Peláez-Fernández, M. Á., BalbuenaVázquez, A. ve Cortés-Macias, R. (2016). Residents’ Perceptions of Tourism Development in Benalmádena (Spain), Tourism Management, 54 (Haziran): 259–274.

Andereck, K. L. ve Nyaupane, G. P. (2011). Exploring the Nature of Tourism and Quality of Life Perceptions among Residents, Journal of Travel Research, 50 (3): 248–260.

Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Knopf, R. C. ve Vogt, C. A. (2005). Residents’ Perceptions of Community Tourism Impacts, Annals of Tourism Research, 32 (4): 1056–1076.

Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Vogt, C. A. ve Knopf, R. C. (2007). A Cross-cultural Analysis of Tourism and Quality of Life Perceptions, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15 (5): 483–502.

Besculides, A., Lee, M. E. ve McCormick, P. J. (2002). Resident’s Perceptions of the Cultural Benefits of Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 29 (2): 303–319.

Bimonte, S. ve Faralla, V. (2016). Does Residents’ Perceived Life Satisfaction Vary with Tourist Season? A Two-step Survey in a Mediterranean Destination, Tourism Management, 55 (Ağustos): 199–208.

Croes, R., Ridderstaat, J. ve van Niekerk, M. (2018). Connecting Quality of Life, Tourism Specialization, and Economic Growth in Small Island Destinations: The Case of Malta, Tourism Management, 65 (Nisan): 212–223.

Çeşme Kaymakamlığı (2016). http://www.cesme.gov.tr/nufus-durumu, Erişim tarihi: 15 Mayıs 2016.

Çeşme Kaymakamlığı (2017). http://www.cesme.gov.tr/ekonomik-durumu, Erişim tarihi: 15 Mayıs 2017.

Gursoy, D. ve Rutherford, D. G. (2004). Host Attitudes Toward Tourism: An Improved Structural Model, Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (3): 495–516.

Jurowski, C. ve Gursoy, D. (2004). Distance Effects on Residents’ Attitudes Toward Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (2): 296–312.

Kim, K., Uysal, M. ve Sirgy, M. J. (2013). How Does Tourism in a Community Impact the Quality of Life of Community Residents?, Tourism Management, 36 (Haziran): 527–540.

Kozak, N., Kozak, A. M. ve Kozak, M. (2016). Genel Turizm (18. Baskı). Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

Liang, Z. X. ve Hui, T. K. (2016). Residents’ Quality of Life and Attitudes Toward Tourism Development in China, Tourism Management, 57 (Aralık): 56–67.

Madrigal, R. (1995). Residents’ Perceptions and the Role of Government, Annals of Tourism Research, 22 (1): 86–102.

Massam, B. H. (2002). Quality of Life: Public Planning and Private Living, Progress in Planning, 58 (3): 141–227.

Mathew, P. V. ve Sreejesh, S. (2017). Impact of Responsible Tourism on Destination Sustainability and Quality of Life of Community in Tourism Destinations, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31 (Haziran): 83– 89.

Nawijn, J. ve Mitas, O. (2012). Resident Attitudes to Tourism and their Effect on Subjective Well-Being: The Case of Palma de Mallorca, Journal of Travel Research, 51 (5): 531–541.

Petrosillo, I., Costanza, R., Aretano, R., Zaccarelli, N. ve Zurlini, G. (2013). The Use of Subjective Indicators to Assess How Natural and Social Capital Support Residents’ Quality of Life in a Small Volcanic Island, Ecological Indicators, 24 (Ocak): 609–620.

Sekaran, U. ve Bougie, R. (2010). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-building Approach (5. Baskı). Haddington: John Wiley ve Sons.

Sharpley, R. (2014). Host Perceptions of Tourism: A Review of the Research, Tourism Management, 42 (Haziran): 37–49.

Sirgy, M. J. (2001). Handbook of Quality-of-Life Research: An Ethical Marketing Perspective (8. Baskı). New York: Springe Scienceve Business Media. ISBN 978-94-015-9837-8.

Stylidis, D., Biran, A., Sit, J. ve Szivas, E. M. (2014). Residents’ Support for Tourism Development: The Role of Residents’ Place Image and Perceived Tourism Impacts, Tourism Management, 45 (Aralık): 260–274.

Türker, N., Selçuk, Ş. ve Özyıldırım, A. (2016). Turizmin Yerel Halkın Yaşam Kalitesi Üzerine Etkisi: Safranbolu Örneği, Karabük Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6 (1): 1–13.

Uysal, M., Sirgy, M. J., Woo, E., ve Kim, H. L. (2016). Quality of Life (QOL) and Well-being Research in Tourism, Tourism Management, 53 (Nisan): 244–261.

Vogt, C., Jordan, E., Grewe, N. ve Kruger, L. (2016). Collaborative Tourism Planning and Subjective Well-Being in a Small Island Destination, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 5 (1): 36–43.

Woo, E., Kim, H. ve Uysal, M. (2015). Life Satisfaction and Support for Tourism Development, Annals of Tourism Research, 50 (Ocak): 84–97.

Kaynak Göster