Menemen Ekolojik Koşullarında Bazı Ticari ve Yerel Fesleğen (Ocimum basilicum L.) Çeşitlerinin Morfolojik, Verim ve Kalite Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

Bu çalışma, Menemen ekolojik koşullarında ticari ve yerel fesleğen (Ocimum basilicum L.) çeşitlerinin morfolojik, verim ve kalite özelliklerini belirlemek amacı ile 2013-2014 yılları arasında yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada 4 adet ticari fesleğen çeşidi ile 3 adet yerel çeşit kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler ışığında ticari ve yerel çeşitler arasında önemli farklılıklar bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. Yerel çeşitler, "Kırmızı" ve "Anamur" verim özellikleri açısından ticari çeşitlerin önünde yer almıştır. Ticari ve yerel çeşitler arasında uçucu yağ oranı ve uçucu yağ verimi bakımından "Anamur" yerel çeşidi ilk sırada yer almıştır. Bu çalışmada, uçucu yağlarda toplam 23 bileşen tanımlanmıştır. Uçucu yağların ana bileşenleri ve oranları sırası ile linalool (%0,41-74,43), 1,8-cineole (%8,47-44,94) ve p-allylanisole (%5,22-22,53) olmuştur.

Determination of Some Morpholocigal, Yield and Quality Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Cultivars and Landraces in Menemen Ecological Conditions

This study was conducted to determine some morphological, yield and quality characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars and landraces in Menemen ecological conditions between 2013-2014. Three basil cultivars and 4 landraces were used in this study. There were significant differences found between cultivars and landraces. Landraces, "Kırmızi" and "Anamur" were superior than commercial varieties in terms of yield. The highest essential oil content and essential oil yield were obtained from "Anamur". In this study, totaly 23 components of essential oils were identified. Main components and the rates of essential oil were linalool (%0,41-74,43), 1,8-cineole (%8,47-44,94) and p-allylanisole (%5,2222,53) respectively.

Kaynakça

Akgül, A. 1989. Volatile oil composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivating in Turkey. Nahrung, 33: 87-88.

Akgül, A. 1993. Fesleğen Baharat Bilimi ve Teknolojisi. Gıda Teknolojisi Derneği Yayınları No:15, S.79-81.

Anonymous. 2010. European Pharmacopoeia. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). 7th ed. Strasbourg, France.

Arabacı, O. E. Bayram. 2004. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and different plant densities on some agronomic and technologic characteristic of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil). Journal of Agronomy 3: (4) 255-262.

Basker, D. E. Putıevsky. 1978. Seasonal variation in the yield of herb and essential oil in some Labiatae species. Journal of Horticultural Science, 53: 179-183.

Baytop, T. 1999. Türkiye'de Bitkiler ile Tedavi (Geçmişte ve Bugün). 2.Baskı. Nobel Tıp Kitapevleri Ltd. Şti. S.207. Ceylan, A. 1995. Tıbbi Bitkiler I (III.Basım) Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No:312.

Chang, X. P., G. Alderson, and C. J. Wright. 2009. Variation in the essential oils in different leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) at day time. The Open Horticulture Journal, 2: 13-16.

Dachler, M., and H. Pelzmann. 1989. Heil-und Gewürzpflanzen, Österreichische Agranveulagü, 54-56.

Dambolena, J. S., M. P. Zunino, A. G. López, H. R. Rubinstein, J. A. Zygadlo, J. W. Mwangi, G. N. Thoithi I. O. Kibwage, J. M. Mwalukumbi, and S. T.

Kariuki. 2010. Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 11: (2) 410-414.

Daneshian, A., B. Gürbüz, B. Coşge, and A. İpek. 2009. Chemical components of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown at different nitrogen levels. International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences, 3(3): 09-13.

Davıs, P. H. 1982. Flora of Turkey and The East Agean Islands. Labiatae, University Press, Edinburg., Volume 7, P.462-463.

Deshpande, R. S., and H. P. Tipnis. 1997. Insecticidal activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Pesticides, 11: 1-12.

Devi, N., A. K. Das, M. A. Hossain, S. M. M. Rahman. 2011. Chemical compositions of different extracts of Ocimum basilicum Leaves J. Sci. Res. 3 (1), 197-206

Erşahin, L. 2006. Diyarbakır Ekolojik Koşullarında Yetiştirilen Fesleğen (Ocimum basilicum L.) Popülasyonlarının Agronomik ve Kalite Özellikleri. Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Tarla Bitkileri Anabilim Dalı Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Adana. 49 sayfa.

Fufa, H., P. S. Baenziger, I. Beecher, V. Dweikat, R.A. Graybosch, and K. M. Eskridge. 2005. Comparison of phenotypic and molecular marker-based classifications of hard red winter wheat cultivars. Euphytica, 145: 133-146.

Halva, S., and L. Pukka. 1987. Studies on Fertilization of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Herb yield of dill and basil affected by fertilization. Journal of Agricultural Sciences in Finland 59: 11-17.

Hussain, A., I. F. Anwar, S. Tufail, H. Sherazi, and R. Przybylski. 2008. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Food Chemistry, 108: (3) 1 986-995.

Ismail, M. 2006. Central properties and chemical composition of Ocimum basilicum essential oil. Pharmaceutical Biology, 44: (8) 619-626.

Jansen, P. C. M. 1981. Ocimum basilicum L. Spices, condiments and Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia, Their Taxonomy and Agricultural Significance. Centre For Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen P.85-96.

Khosla, M. K., B. L. Bradu, and S. C. Gupta. 1989. Polyploidy Breeding in Ocimum For Evolving High Yielding, Better Quality Strains of Essential Oil Importance. 11.

th international congress of essential oils, fragrances and flovours (12-16 November 1989). Vol: 3 (Biosciences), Oxfort &IBH pub. Co.

Klimankova, E., K. Holadova, J. Hajslova, T. Cajka J. Poustka, and M. Koudela. 2008. Aroma profiles of five basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars grown under conventional and organic conditions. Food Chemistry, 107: 464-472.

Labra, M., M. Miele, B. Ledda, F. Grassi, M. Mazzei, and M. Sala. 2004. Morphological characterization, essential oil composition and DNA genotyping of Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars. Plant Science, 167: 725-731.

Marotti, M., R. Piccaglia, and E. Giovanelli. 1996. Differences in essential oil composition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Italian cultivars related to morphological characteristic. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44: 3926-3929.

Mathe, A., E. Lemberkovıcs, J. I. Mathe, and H. Nguyen. 1993. Production biology of mediternaean Lamiaceae species in the temperate beit. Acta Horticulture, 344: 121-122.

Nacar, Ş. 1997. Farklı Yörelerden Sağlanan Fesleğen (Ocimum basilicum L.) Bitkilerinde Değişik Dikim sıklıklarının verim ve Kaliteye Etkisi. Ç.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enst. (Doktora Tezi), 159 s. Adana.

Nurzynska-Wierdak, R., B. Borowski, and K. Dzida. 2013. Essential oil composition of sweet basil cultivars as affected by nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Turk. J. Agric. For., 37: 427-436.

Özcan M., and J. C. Chalchat. 2002. Essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum minimum L. in Turkey. Czech J. Food Sci., 20: 223-228.

Özek, T., S. H. Beis, B. Demirçakmak, and K. H. C. Başer. 1995. Composition of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. cultivated in Turkey. Journal of Essential Oils Research, 7: 203-205.

Prakash, P., and N. Gupta. 2005. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. (tulsı) with A note on eugenol and its pharmacological Actions: a short review. Indian J Physiol. Pharmacol., 49: 2 125-131.

Putievsky, E. 1983. Temperature and daylength ınfluences on the growth and germination of sweet basil and oregano. Journal of Horticultural Science, 58: (4) 583-587.

Sajjadi, S. E. 2006. Analysis of the essential oils of two cultivated basil (Ocımum basılıcum l.) From Iran. DARU, Volume 14, No. 3.

Sımon, J. E., R. D. Bubenheım, R. J. Joly, and D. J. Charles. 1992. Water stres- ınduced alterations in essential oils content and composition of sweet basil. Journal of Essential Oils Research, 4: 71-75.

Simon, J. E., M. R. Morales, W. B. Phippen, R. F. Vieira, and Z. Hao. 1999. Basil: A Source of Aroma Compounds and a Popular Culinary and Ornamental Herb. Prespecctives on new crops and new uses (Ed: J. Janick ASHS press, Alexandria, V.A.

Stefan, M., M. M. Zamfirache, C. Padurariu, E. Truta, and I. Gostin. 2013.The composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils in three Ocimum species growing in Romania. Central European Journal of Biology, 8 (6): 600-608.

Steel, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. Second Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York.

Telci, İ. 2005. Reyhan (Ocimum basilicum L.) genotiplerinde uygun biçim yüksekliklerinin belirlenmesi. GOÜ. Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 22: (2) 77-83

Verma, P. K., M. S. Punia, G. D. Sharma, and G. Talwar. 1989. Evaluation of different species of Ocimum for their herb and oil yield under hayrana conditions. Indian Perfumer, 33:(2), 79-83.

Vieira, R. F., and J. E. Simon. 2000. Chemical characterization of basil (Ocimum spp.) found in the markets and used in traditional medicine in Brazil. Economic-Botany, 54: 207-216.

Yurtsever, N., 1984. Deneysel Istatistik Metotları. Köy Hizmetleri Toprak ve Gübre Arş. Enst. Müdürlüğü Yavınları Genel Yayın No. l21 Ankara.

Zollo, P. H., A. L. Biyiti, F. Tchoumbougnang, C. Menut, G. Lamaty, and P. Bouchet. 1998. Aromatic plants of tropical Central Africa. Part XXXII. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thirteen essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 13: 107-114.

Kaynak Göster