Beyin Araştırmaları Işığında Yabancı Dil Sınıflarında Anadili Kullanımı

Anadili edinimi hızlı ve zahmetsiz ilerleyen bir süreç olmasına rağmen, sonradan öğrenilen dil, birçok birey için birtakım zorluklar teşkil etmektedir. Özellikle, geç yaşta öğrenilen dilde iletişim kurabilmek bireyler için son derece uzun ve yorucu olabilmektedir. Sınıf ortamında bu zorlukları ortadan kaldırmayı amaçlayan görüşler, özellikle teknoloji ve bilgi paylaşımının ilerlemesiyle önemli ölçüde başarılı olmuşlardır. Ancak, bu süreçte anadilinin rolü tartışma konusu olmuştur. Bu makalede, öğrencilere öğrendikleri yabancı dilde iletişim kurabilmelerini sağlamak için sadece hedef dilin kullanılmasını öngören görüşlerin dil öğrenimi üzerindeki etkilerinin beyin ve dil açısından değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır. Duygusal (afektif), bilişsel ve psikodilbilimsel ve beyindilbilimsel çalışmalardan elde edilen verilere dayanarak, anadili kullanımının dil eğitiminin her aşamasında tamamen kısıtlanması olası görülmemekte ve dil öğrenme başarısını da olumsuz yönde etkileyeceği düşünülmektedir.

An Investigation of L1 Use in Foreign Language Classrooms: Evidence from Brain Research

First language acquisition (L1) proceeds quickly and effortlessly. The acquisition of a second language (L2) - later in life, however, poses some difficulties. Age and context of acquisition determine the extent of success of ultimate attainment in the later-learned language. Extensive research into what lies behind this difficulty has led to many views aiming to facilitate the learning process. One view, the use of mother tongue has always been a matter of controversy during the learning process. There has been a range of views, both for and against, particularly in the context of teaching a foreign language in formal education. This article assesses the consequences of the views that favor target-language-only approach in teaching in the light of brain research. It puts forward an argument based on the data obtained from affective, cognitive and psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic literature that banishing L1 from the classroom is not only impossible for practical reasons, but also acts as a deterrent to successful language learning.

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