Modern Anayasal Demokrasilerde Anayasanın Meşruiyeti: Schmitt ve Habermas’ın Kuramlarının Karşılaştırmalı İncelemesi

Bu çalışmada Schmitt ve Habermas’ın anayasa mefhumu ve anayasal meşruiyete dair görüşleri incelenmektedir. Schmitt ve Habermas geniş kapsamlı, birbirinden çok farklı (normatif ve realist) ve demokrasi kuramının neredeyse iki ayrı ucunda bulunan anayasa ve anayasal meşruiyet kavramsallaştırmaları sunmaktadır. Schmitt’in anayasa kuramı kitle temelli plebisiterliğin önünü açan unsurlar barındırmaktadır. Buna karşılık, Habermas’ın tartışımsal hukuk anlayışı katılımcı yöntemlerle belirlenen yasaların meşruiyetini ve anayasal demokratik kurumları ön plana çıkarmaktadır. Habermas ve Schmitt’in görüşleri günümüzün anayasal demokrasilerinde anayasanın meşruiyetine dair tartışmaları derinleştirmek ve anayasa yapıcıların ve toplumun farklı kesimlerinin konuya bakış açılarına ışık tutmak açısından önem taşımaktadır.

Constitutional Legitimacy in Modern Constitutional Democracies: Comparative Analysis of the Theories of Schmitt and Habermas

This study aims to expound on the considerations of Schmitt and Habermas on the notions of constitution and constitutional legitimacy. The figures provide us with two comprehensive and substantially different (realist and normative) conceptualizations of constitution and constitutional legitimacy, representing almost two opposite poles of theory of democracy. Schmitt’s constitutional theory paves the way for mass based plebiscitarianism. On the contrary, Habermas’s discursive understanding of law gives prominence to the legitimacy of laws determined through participatory methods and institutions of constitutional democracy. In this regard, their considerations are significant in order to deepen the debates about the legitimacy of a constitution and shed light on the perspectives of the authors of constitutions and different segments of society in contemporary constitutional democracies.

Kaynakça

Schwab, George. (1989). The Challenge of the Exception: an Introduction to the Political Ideas of Carl Schmitt Between 1921 and 1936, New York: Greenwood Press.

Schmitt. (2004). Legality and Legitimacy, Jeffrey Seitzer (Çev.), London: Duke University Press.

Schmitt, Carl. (2008). Constitutional Theory, Jeffrey Seitzer (Çev.), London: Duke University Press.

Scheuerman.(1996). Carl Schmitt‟s Critique of Liberal Constitutionalism. Review of Politics, vol. 58, no.2, 299-322.

Rehg, William. (1996) Introduction. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, William Rehg (Çev.), MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Rawls, John. (2007). Siyasal Liberalizm, İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları, İstanbul.

Michelman. (1996). Between Facts and Norms. The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 93, no. 6, 307-315.

Loughlin, Martin. (2007). Constituent Power Subverted: From English Constitutional Argument to British Constitutional Practice. The Paradox of Constitutionalism: Constituent Power and Constitutional Form, ed. by Martin Loughlin and Neil Walker, Oxford University Press, 27-48.

Kalyvas, Andreas. (2006). The Basic Norm and Democracy in Hans Kelsen‟s Legal and Political Theory. Philosophy and Social Criticism, vol.32, no.5, 573-598.

Honig, Bonnie. (2001). Dead Rights, Live Futures: A Reply to Habermas‟s „Constitutional Democracy‟. Political Theory, vol.29, no.6, 792-805.

Habermas. (1975). Legitimation Crisis, Thomas McCarthy (Çev.), Beacon Press.

Habermas. (1986). Law and Morality. Kenneth Baynes (Çev.), The Tanner Lectures on Human Values VIII, University of Utah Press, 217-277.

Habermas. (1990). Discourse Ethics: Notes on a Program of Philosophical Justification. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action, The MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 43-115.

Habermas. (1996). Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, William Rehg (Çev.), MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Habermas. (1998). The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory, ed. by Ciaran Cronin and Pablo De Greiff, MIT Press.

Habermas, J. (2001). Constitutional Democracy: A Paradoxical Union of Contradictory Principles? Political Theory, vol. 29, no.6, 766-781.

Dessauer, Frederick E. (1946). The Constitutional Decision: A German Theory of Constitutional Law and Politics. Ethics, vol. 57, no.1, 14-37.

Delacroix, Sylvie. (2005). Schmitt‟s Critique of Kelsenian Normativism. Ratio Juris, vol.18, no.1, 30-45.

Cristi, Renato. (1998). Carl Schmitt and Authoritarian Liberalism, University of Wales Press.

Kaynak Göster