YERELLİK-POPÜLERLİK EKSENİNDE TÜRKİYE’DE ÇEVRE MÜCADELELERİ

Tüm dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de son yıllarda çevre mücadelelerinde dikkate değer bir artış yaşandı. 1990’ların hemen başından itibaren doğmaya başlayan ve altın madenciliği, hidroelektrik santraller, termik santraller ve nükleer santraller gibi projelere olumsuz çevresel etkileri nedeniyle karşı çıkan bu mücadeleler, 2000’li yıllarda belirgin bir ivme kazanarak ülkenin hemen tüm bölgelerine yayıldılar. Bu makale Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinde HES projelerine karşı ve Ege ve Güney Marmara bölgelerinde altın madenciliği projelerine karşı 2000’li yıllarda doğan protesto hareketlerine odaklanarak şu soruya yanıt arıyor: HES ve altın madenciliğine karşı yerelde doğan çeşitli protesto hareketleri bölgesel veya ulusal ölçekte etkili olabilecek kolektif bir siyasal özneye ya da, diğer bir deyişle, karşı-hegemonik bir popüler harekete dönüşme potansiyeline ne ölçüde sahip oldular? Bu soruya cevaben hem altın madenciliği hem de HES karşıtı mücadelelerin, yerelliği aşan bir karaktere bürünmelerine karşın popüler hareketlere dönüşemedikleri tartışılıyor. Her iki mücadele de, yereldeki altın madenciliği ve HES projelerine karşıtlığın ötesine geçen bir söylem inşa ettiler ve yerelin yanı sıra yerelin dışından da çeşitli toplumsal grupları harekete geçirdiler. Bununla birlikte, her iki mücadele de harekete geçirdiği heterojen grupları kolektif bir kimlik etrafında bütünleştirerek ulusal ölçekte etkili olabilecek popüler bir siyasal özneye dönüşemedi. Çalışmada söz konusu mücadelelerin kolektif bir kimlik inşa edememesinin nedenlerine ilişkin olarak dört faktörün öne çıktığı ileri sürülüyor: yerelliğin süregiden baskısı; parlamenter temsiliyetin eksikliği, protestocuların mevcut kimlik ve aidiyetlerinin hakimiyeti; ve, iktidar blokunun protesto hareketlerini yönetmek ve kontrol etmek üzere geliştirdiği dil ve pratikler. Çalışma, yerellik ile popülerlik arasında bir nitelik kazanan çevre mücadelelerinin oldukça önemli kazanımlarına rağmen, neoliberal rasyonaliteyle şekillendirilen kamu politikalarının içerdiği çevresel tehditler karşısında güçlü bir itiraza dönüşemediklerine işaret ederek sonlanıyor.

BETWEEN THE LOCAL AND THE POPULAR: ENVIRONMENTALIST STRUGGLES IN TURKEY

As is the case in many other countries, many environmental struggles have emerged in Turkey within the last few decades. Although they first emerged only in a few places in the 1990s, these struggles extended to almost all regions of the country in 2000s by voicing environmentally harmful effects of gold-mining, hydroelectric power schemes, thermal power plants and nuclear plant projects. By focusing on the anti-HEPP protests in the Eastern Black Sea region and the anti-gold mining protests in the Aegean and South Marmara region, this paper adresses this question: to what extent do these locally emerged protest movements have the potential of transforming into a regional or national counter-hegemonic popular movement? It is argued that although they went beyond the local, neither the anti-gold mining nor the anti-HEPP protests succeeded to turn into such political agent. Both struggles constructed a discourse that articulated local demands together with national ones, and mobilized not only local, but also several national social groups. However, they could not construct a collective identity, failing to unite plural mobilized groups and turn them into a popular political agent. The study underlines four factors as to the reasons of this failure: the ongoing pressure of the local, the absence of a political party willing to represent demands of protest movements, the dominance of existing identities, and the discourse and related practices of the power bloc against the protests. The study concludes by discussing the outcomes and consequences of the anti-HEPP and anti-gold mining protests, which are neither local nor popular, but stuck in between the two.

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Kaynak Göster