TANINMA SORUNU YAŞAYAN DEVLETLER AÇISINDAN EGEMENLİK VE TANINMA KONUSUNUN KAVRAMSAL ANALİZİ

Son yıllarda, yasal olarak tanınmayan ancak fiili olarak alternatif siyasi haritalarda yerini alan bazı devletler mevcuttur. Uluslararası platformlarda varlıklarını sürdürdükleri için bu oluşumlar mevcut sisteme ciddi olarak meydan okumaktadırlar. Bu tarz siyasi oluşumların ya da varlıkların bazıları belirli bir uluslararası tanınma düzeyine sahipken bazıları hiç tanınmamıştır. Bu siyasi oluşumlarda faaliyet gösteren politikacılar kendi coğrafi sınırları içerisinde referandum düzenlemekte, bağımsızlıklarını ilan etmekte ve hatta dış politika yapma gayretindedirler. 1980’li yılların sonu ve 1990’lı yılların başındaki gelişmelerin ardından tanınmayan devletlerin konusu akademik çevrenin dikkatini çekmiştir. Birçok yazar, bu siyasi oluşumlar için yeni terimler bulmaya, uluslararası sistemdeki yerlerini tartışmaya veya bu oluşumları uluslararası hukukta farklı kategorilere koymaya devam etmektedirler. Bununla birlikte, klasik çerçeveye uymayan bu devlet benzeri varlıklar ya da oluşumlar, uluslararası sistemde büyük bir problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu makale, tanınma sorunu yaşayan devletlerin egemenlikleri konusunu ele alıp, bu devletlerin uluslararası sistemdeki egemenlikleri ve tanınma konusunu tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır.

CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF SOVEREIGNTY AND RECOGNITION IN COUNTRIES FACING RECOGNITION PROBLEM

In recent years, there are some states that are not legally recognized but actively involved in alternative political mappings. These states are seriously challenging the existing system because they maintain their presence in international platforms. Some of these political formations or entities have a certain level of international recognition, while some of which have not been recognized yet. Politicians in these political formations organize referendums within their geographical boundaries, declare their independence and even make foreign policy efforts. Following the developments in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the issue of unrecognized states has attracted many scholars. Many of those scholars continue to find new terms for these political formations, to discuss their place in the international system, or to put these formations in different categories in international law. However, these state-like entities or formations that do not conform to the classical framework appear to be a major problem in the international system. Taking the sovereignty issue of states facing with recognition, this article aims to discuss the problem of recognition of these states in the international system.

Kaynakça

Bağcı, Hüseyin (2003), Uluslararası Hukuk (Ankara: Turhan Kitabevi).

Bahceli, Tozun, Barry Bartman ve Henry Srebrnik (2004), De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty (London: Routledge).

Berg, Eiki ve Raul Toomla (2009), “Forms of Normalization in the Quest for De Facto Statehood”, The International Spectator, 44 (4): 27-45. Biryukov, Pavel (2000), Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo (Moscow: Jurist).

Blakkisrud, Helge ve Pal Kolsto (2012), “Dynamics of De Facto Statehood:The South Caucasian De Facto States Between Secession and Sovereignty”, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 12 (2): 281-298.

Brownlie, Ian (2003), Principles of Public International Law (New York: Oxford University Press).

Caspersen, Nina (2008) “From Kosovo to Karabakh: International Responses to De Facto States”, Sudosteuropa, 56 (1): 58-83.

Caspersen, Nina (2012), Unrecognized States (London: Polity).

Caspersen, Nina (2013), Unrecongnized State:The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Modern International System (New Jersey: John Wiley ve Sons).

Caspersen, Nina ve Gareth Stansfield (2011), Unrecognized States in the International System (London: Routledge).

Cedeno, Victor R. (2003), Sixth Report On Unilateral Acts Of States (New York: United Nation).

Crawford, James R. (2006), The Creation of States in the International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Crawford, James R. (2015), “Responsibility, Fraternity and Sustainability in International Law”, The Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 52: 1-34.

Çakmak, Cenap (2014), Uluslararası Hukuk, Giriş, Teori, Uygulama: Bir Uluslararası İlişkiler Yaklaşımı (Bursa: Ekin Yayıncılık).

Florea, Adrian (2014), “De Facto States in International Politics (1945–2011): A New Data Set”, International Interactions, 40 (5): 788-811.

Frear, Thomas (2014), “The Foreign Policy Options of a Small Unrecognised State: The Case of Abkhazia”, Caucasus Survey, 1 (2): 83-107.

Geldenhuys, Deon (2009), Contested States in World Politics (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).

Grant, John P. ve Craig J. Barker (2009), Encyclopedic Dictionary of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Harvey, James ve Gareth Stansfield (2011), “Theorizing the Unrecognized States:Sovereignty, Secessionism and Political Economy”, Caspersen, Nina ve Gareth Stansfield (Der.), Unrecognized States in the International System (London: Routledge): 11-26.

Hille, Charlotte (2010), State Building and Conflict Resolution in the Caucasus (Leiden: Brill).

Hills, Christopher (2003), The Challenging Politics of Foreign Policy (New York: Palgrave MacMillan).

Hoffman, John (1998), Sovereignty (Buckingham: Open University Press).

Jackson, Robert H. (1990), Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Jennings, Robert ve Arthur Watts (1996), Oppenheim's Internaitonal Law (New York: Longman Press).

King, Charles (2001), “The Benefits of Ethnic War: Understanding Eurasia's Unrecognized States”, World Politics, 53 (4): 524-552.

Kingston, Paul ve Ian Spears (2004), States Within States: Incipient Political Entities in the Post-Cold War Era (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).

Kollossov, Viladimir ve John O’Loughlin (1999), “Pseudo-States as Harbingers of a New Geopolitics: The Example of the Trans-Dniestr Moldovan Republic (TMR)”, Newman, David (Der.), Boundaries, Territories and Postmodernity (London: Frank Cass): 151-176.

Kolossov, Viladimir ve Nikolai Mironenko (2001), Geopolitika I Politicheskaya Geografiya (Moscow: Aspekt).

Kolsto, Pal (2006), “The Sustainability and Future of Unrecognized QuasiStates”, Journal of Peace Research, 43 (6): 725-726.

Krasner, Stephen D. (1999), Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Krasner, Stephen D. (2004), “Sharing Sovereignty. New Institutions for Collapsed and Failing States”, International Security, 29 (2): 87-88.

Kurdyukov, G. (2010), Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo (International Law) (Moscow: Statut).

Lauterpacht, Hersch (2013), Recognition in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Lynch, Dov (2001), “Managing Separatist States: An Eurasian Case Study”, Paris: ISS-WEU Ocassional Papers, No. 32.

Lynch, Dov (2004), Engaging Eurasia’s Separatist States:Unresolved Conflicts and De Facto States (Washington: USIP Press).

Lukashuk, Igor (2005), Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo (Moscow: Rossiyskaya Akademia Nauk).

Markedonov, Sergey (2012), “De Facto Obrazovaniya Postsovetskogo Prostranstva: Dvadtsat Let Gosudarstvennogo Stroitelstva”, Analiticheskie Dokladi Instituta Kavkaza, No: 5.

Montevideo Convention (1933), “Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States”, The Seventh International Conference of American Studies, Montevideo.

Owtram, Francis (2011) “The Foreign Policies Of Unrecognized States”, Caspersen, Nina ve Gareth Stansfield (Der.), Unrecognized States in the International System (London: Routledge).

Özpek, Burak B. (2010), “De Facto States and Inter-State Military Conflict”, Doktora Tezi (Ankara: Bilkent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü).

Pegg, Scott (1998), “De Facto States in the International System”, Working Paper, No: 21, University of Columbia.

Pellet, Allain (1992), “The Opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committee A Second Breath for the Self-Determination of Peoples”, European Journal of International Law, 3 (1): 178-185.

Popov, F. (2011) “Ot 'Bezgosudartsvennoi Territorii' k ' Gosudarstvu De Facto”, International Trends, 9 (26): 16-28.

Potter, Donald W. (2004), “State Responsibility, Sovereignty, and Failed States”, https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/193005023?q&versionId=211271951 (20.10.2017).

Shaw, N. Malcolm (2014), International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Turovsky, Rostislav (1999), Politicheskaya Georgrafiya (Moskva-Smolensk: Izdatelstvo SGU).

Voller, Yaniv (2012), “From Rebellion to De Facto Statehood: International and Transnational Sources of The Transformation of the Kurdish National Liberation Movement in Iraq into the Kurdistan Regional Government”, PhD Dissertation, (London: the London School of Economics and Political Science).

Kaynak Göster