SİBER SAVAŞLARDA JUS AD BELLUM VE JUS IN BELLO

Savaş kavramı, Soğuk Savaş dönemiyle birlikte dönüşmeye başlamış, yakın dönemde de Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin güttüğü “teröre karşı savaş politikası” ile bu durum perçinlenmiştir. Bu kavramsal dönüşüm çerçevesinde savaşların sadece devletler arasında gerçekleştiği artık düşünülmemektedir. Karakter olarak asimetrik ve genellikle sınırlı bir savaş alanından yoksun olan yeni savaşlar geleneksel savaşı tamamen değiştirememiş fakat geleneksel savaşlardaki tanımları ve ayırımları bulanıklaştırmış ve yeni kavramlar eklemiştir. Kavramsal dönüşümler ve yeni özellikler çerçevesinde ortaya çıkan yeni gri alanlar, uluslararası hukukun mevcut kuralları ve uygulanması açısından bazı zorlukları ve/veya sorunları da beraberinde getirmektedir. Ne var ki, uluslararası hukukun normatif gelişimi ve uygulamaları uluslararası politikadan bağımsız bir şekilde gerçekleşmemektedir. Bu çerçevede, bu makalede özellikle Uluslararası İlişkiler literatüründe az çalışılmış bir konu olan yeni savaşlarda jus ad bellum ve jus in bello prensiplerinin uygulanabilirliği siber savaşlar/saldırılar özelinde irdelenmekte ve Estonya, Gürcistan ve Stuxnet vakaları üzerinden literatürdeki örneklerinden farklı olarak “karşı çıkma kuramı” çerçevesinde tartışılmaktadır.

JUS AD BELLUM AND JUS IN BELLO IN CYBER WARS

The concept of war has been transforming since the Cold War period, and such transformation has been strengthened by “the war against terror” policy of the United States of America. In light of this conceptual transformation, it is no longer argued that wars take place only between states. New wars—which are asymmetric and do not have a limited war zone—have not changed traditional wars all together, instead, they have blurred the definitions and distinctions pertaining to traditional wars and added new concepts. The grey zones that have emerged due to these transformations have also led to the rise of new challenges and problems related to the implementation of the rules of international law. The normative evolution of international law and its implementations do not take place independently of international politics. In this vein, this article focuses on a question that has been underexplored especially in the International Relations literature, namely the applicability of jus ad bellum and jus in bello in new wars through the lenses of contestation theory. To this end, in its attempt to contribute the existing literature, it discusses how norms are contested in instances of cyber wars/attacks with reference to the specific cases of Estonia, Georgia and Stuxnet.

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Kaynak Göster