KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE TÜRKİYE’DE KANAL TİPİ HİDRO-ELEKTRİK SANTRALLERİN FOUCAULT’NUN BİYO-İKTİDAR, YÖNETİMSELLİK VE GÜVENLİĞİN BİYOPOLİTİKASI KAVRAMLARI BAĞLAMINDA ANALİZİ

Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, küresel iklim değişikliği güvenliğini sağlama adına yeşil ekonomiye geçiş ve Türkiye’de kanal-tipi hidro-elektrik (HES) projeleri ve beraberinde kamuoyuna damgasını vuran tartışmaları Foucault’nun biyoiktidar, liberal yönetimsellik ve güvenliğin biyopolitikası kavramsallaştırmaları temelinde analiz etmektir. Bu makalede iki temel iddia savunulmuştur: 1) Kapitalizmin ikinci çelişkisinin (O’Connor, 1994) sonucunda ortaya çıkan küresel iklim değişikliğinin biyo-iktidar alanı olduğu ve iklim değişikliği krizine yanıt olarak sunulan yeni güvenlik yapılanmasının (dispositif) resmi adının yeşil ekonomiye geçiş olduğu; ve bu geçişte atmosferdeki karbon gazı ile insanların ilişkilerini yeniden tanımlayan ve dönüştüren bir neo-liberal yönetimsellik aracılığı ile güvenliğin biyopolitikasının gerçekleştiği savunulmuştur. 2) Doğa ve insan yaşamını idame ettirme iddiasından yola çıkarak oluşturulan küresel iklim değişikliği yönetimselliği kapsamında yeşil ekonomi dispositif unsurlarının HES projesi geliştirme adına dere sularına müdahalesi veya biyopolitik iktidarı (suyun özelleştirilmesi, suya erişimin engellenmesi, suyun kanallara hapsedilmesi, bir yerden başka bir yere taşınması, yetersiz can suyu salımı) yerelde yeşil gasp ile kapitalizmin ikinci çelişkisini pekiştirerek doğa ve insan yaşamını tehdit eder riskler üretmektedir. Bu durum biyopolitikanın paradoksu sonucu ortaya çıkan biyo-iktidar çatışmasını yansıtır. Neoliberal serbest piyasa kapitalist ekonomi mantığı tarafından şekillenen yeşil ekonomi temelli küresel iklim değişikliği güvenliği yönetimselliği bu çatışmayı bütün yaşamı düzenleyip koruyarak değil, durumun gereklerine bazı nüfusların harcanabilir olduğu kabulünden hareketle bazı yaşamların yok olmasına göz yumarak çözme eğilimindedir. Küresel iklim değişikliği güvenliği yönetimselliğinin bir uzantısı olarak gelişen HES’lerle birlikte akarsu vadileri ve nüfus Foucault’un deyimiyle “harcanabilir” doğa ve nüfusa dönüşmeye başlamıştır. Küresel iklim değişikliği güvenliğinin sağlanması için seçilen neo-liberal yönetimsellik bağlamında “harcanabilir” doğa ve nüfus dünya genelinde ve Türkiye’de kırsal kesimde yerleşik ve kırsal kesimle bağını henüz koparmamış şehirlerde yaşayan halktır. Türkiye HES projeleri vakasında yansıtıldığı gibi iklim değişikliği güvenliği adına yapılan her şey, aslında yeni ekolojik sömürgelik ile sonuçlanmaktadır.

THE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND RUN-OF-RIVER HYDRO DEVELOPMENT IN TURKEY ON THE BASIS OF FOUCAULT'S BIO-POWER, GOVERNMENTALITY AND BIO-POLITICS OF SECURITY CONCEPTS

By drawing on Foucault's concepts of bio-power, liberal governmentality and the biopolitics of security, this study aims to analyze the transition to green economy in the name of global climate change mitigation as well as the development of run-of river channel-type hydro-electric (HEPP) projects, public debates and controversies over these projects in Turkey. It consists of two main arguments: 1) It argues that the global climate change, which came into effect as a result of the second contradiction of capitalism (O’Connor, 1994), falls into the realm of bio-power, and the official name for the new security dispositif that is presented as a solution to the climate change crisis is transition to the green economy. It further argues that in this transition, the biopolitics of security has been realized through the neo-liberal governmentality of climate change, which began to define and transform the relationship between carbon gas and human beings. 2) It argues that the HEPP projects, which have been shaped by the global climate change, green economy and renewable energy discourses and practices, fall into the realm of bio-power as well as reflect a bio-power conflict. Within the global context of governmentality of the global climate change, which claims to ensure the continuity of the life of nature and human beings, the intervention elements of green economy dispositif or bio-politics into the river water for the sake of developing HEPP projects (privatization of water, blocking access to water, confinement of water into channels, its transportation from one place to another, insufficient water release into river bed) has resulted in the perpetuation of the second contradiction of capitalism through green grabbing, which began to threaten the survival of nature and human life at the local level in Turkey. This situation reflects the bio-power conflict that emerges from the paradox of biopolitics. The green economy-based global climate change security governmentality, shaped by the freemarket liberal capitalist economy logic, tends to resolve this bio-power conflict not by regulating and preserving all lives. Instead, it tends to resolve it by ignoring the survival of some lives based on the presumption that some lives can be “disposable” depending on the situation. With the development of HEPP projects as the extension of global climate change security governmentality, river valleys and their population began to transform into what Foucault calls “disposable” nature and population. Within the context of neo-liberal governmentally chosen for the security of global climate change, in the world and in Turkey, the “expendable” nature and population are located in rural areas. As reflected in the HES projects case in Turkey, everything conducted in the name of climate change security, in fact, have resulted the new ecological colonialism.

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