KAPİTALİZMDE TOPLUMSAL CİNSİYET VE SINIF İLİŞKİLERİ: TOPLUMSAL YENİDEN-ÜRETİM YAKLAŞIMLARININ BİR ELEŞTİRİSİ

Bu makale modern toplumlarda toplumsal cinsiyet ilişkilerinin kapitalist üretim biçimi ile bağı üzerine odaklanan ve Marksist siyasal iktisat eleştirisini benimseyen sosyalist-feminist literatürün teorik açılımlarını incelemektedir. Kapitalizm ile partiyarka arasındaki nedensellik ilişkisini toplumsal yenidenüretim teorisi (TYT) çerçevesinde değerlendiren bu literatür yalnızca kadın hareketi için kayda değer bir katkı sunmakla kalmaz, aynı zamanda kapitalizmin nasıl işlediğine dair de verimli tartışmalara kapı açar. Bu doğrultuda, makale öncelikle TYT literatürüne zemin hazırlayan ve kapitalizmle patriyarka arasındaki bağı inceleyen 1970’lerdeki çalışmaları gözden geçirmektedir. Daha sonrasında, bu öncü literatürdeki açmazlar karşısında benimsenen farklı TYT yaklaşımlarını, bunların öne sürdükleri ideolojinin göreli özerkliği, üretim biçimlerinin eklemlenmesi ve kapitalist üretim ile yenidenüretimin birliği mefhumları üzerinden, tematik bir şekilde incelemektedir. Nihayet TYT yaklaşımlarının kendi sınırlarını ve açmazlarını tarihsel materyalist perspektiften eleştiren bir tartışmayla sonlandırılmaktadır.

GENDER AND CLASS RELATIONS IN CAPITALISM: A CRITIQUE OF SOCIAL REPRODUCTION APPROACHES

This article examines the theoretical insights developed on the basis of Marxian critique of political economy by SocialistFeminist literature that focuses on the connection between gender relations and capitalist mode of production. This literature, which understands the causality relation between capitalism and women’s oppression within the framework of social reproduction theory, does not only provide a significant contribution to the women’s movement but also provokes fruitful discussions on the actual workings of capitalism. In order to appreciate the importance of this contribution, the article first reviews the preliminary attempts of the 1970s that focus on the connection between capitalism and patriarchy; it then goes on to examine, in a thematic way, the different approaches in social reproduction theory, adopted as response to impasses in this early literature, through notions of relative autonomy of ideology, articulation of modes of production, and unity of capitalist production and reproduction; and finally, it concludes with a critical discussion of the limits and impasses of social reproduction theories from a historicalmaterialist perspective.

Kaynakça

Althusser, Louis (1971), Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays (New York: Monthly Review Press) (çev. Ben Brewster).

Althusser, Louis (1976), Essays in Self-Criticism (Londra: NLB) (çev. Grahame Lock).

Althusser, Louis (2005[1965]), Pour Marx (Paris: La Découverte).

Anderson, Perry (1976), Considerations on Western Marxism (Londra: NLB).

Barrett, Michèle (1988[1980]), Women’s Oppression Today: the Marxist/Feminist Encounters, gözden geçirilmiş edisyon (Londra: Verso).

Barrett, Michèle ve Mary McIntosh (1979), “Christine Delphy: Towards a Materialist Feminism?”, Feminist Review, 1 (1): 95–106.

Barrett, Michèle ve Mary McIntosh (1991[1982]), The Anti-social Family, ikinci edisyon (Londra: Verso).

Beechey, Veronica (1978), “Women and Production: A Critical Analysis of Some Sociological Theories of Women’s Work”, Kuhn, Annette ve AnnMarie Wolpe (der.) (1978a), Feminism and Materialism: Women and Modes of Production (Londra: Routledge and Kegan Paul): 155–97.

Brenner, Johanna (1984), “Review: Marxist Theory and the Woman Question”, Contemporary Sociology, 13 (6): 698–700.

Brenner, Johanna (2000), Women and the Politics of Class (New York: Monthly Review Press).

Brenner, Johanna ve Maria Ramas (1984), “Rethinking Women’s Oppression”, New Left Review I/144: 33–71.

Brenner, Robert (1976), “Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe”, Past & Present, 70: 30–75.

Brenner, Robert (2007), “Property and Progress: Where Adam Smith Went Wrong”, Wickham, Chris (der.) (2017), Marxist History-writing for the Twentyfirst Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 49–111.

Briggs, Laura (2017), How All Politics Became Reproductive Politics: From Welfare Reform to Foreclosure to Trump (Oakland, CA: University of California Press).

Corrigan, Philip ve Derek Sayer (1978), “Hindess and Hirst: A Critical Review”, Socialist Register, 15: 194–214.

de Lesseps, Emmanuèle (1980), “Hétérosexualité et féminisme”, Questions féministes, 7: 55–69.

Delphy, Christine (1998), L’ennemi principal, cilt 1: Economie politique du patriarcat (Paris: Syllepse).

Delphy, Christine (2003), “Pour une théorie générale de l’exploitation: en finir avec la théorie de la plus-value”, Mouvements, 26: 69–78.

Delphy, Christine (2004), “Pour une théorie générale de l’exploitation. Deuxième partie: repartir du bon-pied”, Mouvements, 31: 97–106.

Edholm, Felicity, Olivia Harris ve Kate Young (1978), “Conceptualising Women”, Critique of Anthropology, 3 (9/10): 101–30.

Engels, Friedrich (1990[1884]), “The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State”, Marx, Karl ve Friedrich Engels (1990), Collected Works, Cilt 26 (Londra: Lawrence & Wishart): 129–276.

Farris, Sara R. (2015), “Migrants’ Regular Army of Labour: Gender Dimensions of the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Migrant Labor in Western Europe”, Critical Sociology, 63 (1): 121–43.

Ferguson, Susan ve David McNally (2013), “Capital, Labour-Power, and Gender Relations: Introduction to the Historical Materialism Edition of Marxism and the Oppression of Women”, Vogel, Lise (2013[1983]), Marxism and the Oppression of Women: Toward a Unitary Theory (Leiden: E.J. Brill): xvii–xl.

Firestone, Shulamith (1971), The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution, gözden geçirilmiş edisyon (New York: Bantam).

Gamarnikow, Eva (1978), “Sexual division of labour: the case of nursing”, Kuhn, Annette ve AnnMarie Wolpe (der.) (1978a), Feminism and Materialism: Women and Modes of Production (Londra: Routledge and Kegan Paul): 96–123.

Gimenez, Martha E. (2018), Marx, Women, and Capitalist Social Reproduction: Marxist Feminist Essays (Leiden: E.J. Brill).

Godelier, Maurice (1972), Rationality and Irrationality in Economics (New York: Monthly Review Press) (çev. Brian Pearce).

Hartmann, Heidi (1976), “Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex”, Signs, 1 (3): 137–69 (Fransızca çevirisi: Hartmann [1978]).

Hartmann, Heidi (1978), “Capitalisme, Patriarcat et ségrégation professionnelle des sexes”, Questions féministes, 4: 13–38.

Hartmann, Heidi I. (1979), “The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union”, Capital & Class, 3 (2): 1–33.

Hartmann, Heidi I. (1981), “The Family as the Locus of Gender, Class, and Political Struggle: the Example of Housework”, Signs, 6 (3): 366–94.

Kollontai, Alexandra (1978[1909]), “Social Basis of the Woman Question”, Holt, Alix (der.) (1978), Selected Writings of Alexandra Kollontai (Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill and Company): 58–74.

Kuhn, Annette ve AnnMarie Wolpe (1978b), “Feminism and materialism”, Kuhn, Annette ve AnnMarie Wolpe (der.) (1978a), Feminism and Materialism: Women and Modes of Production (Londra: Routledge and Kegan Paul): 1–10.

Lewis, Sophie (2019), Full Surrogacy Now: Feminism against Family (Londra ve New York: Verso).

Lukács, Georg (1971), History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press) (çev. Rodney Livingstone).

Marx, Karl (1973), Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Londra: Penguin) (çev. Martin Nicolaus).

Marx, Karl (1990[1867]), Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, cilt 1 (Londra: Penguin) (çev. Ben Fowkes).

McDonough, Roisin ve Rachel Harrison, “Patriarchy and Relations of Production”, Kuhn, Annette ve AnnMarie Wolpe (der.) (1978a), Feminism and Materialism: Women and Modes of Production (Londra: Routledge and Kegan Paul): 11–41.

McIntosh, Mary (1978), “The State and the Oppression of Women”, Kuhn, Annette ve AnnMarie Wolpe (der.) (1978a), Feminism and Materialism: Women and Modes of Production (Londra: Routledge and Kegan Paul): 254–89.

Millett, Kate (2000[1969]), Sexual Politics (Urbana ve Chicago: University of Illinois Press).

Mitchell, Juliet (1966), “Women: the Longest Revolution”, New Left Review, I/40: 11–37.

Mitchell, Juliet (2000[1974]), Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis (New York: Basic Books). NQF Yayın Kurulu (1981), “Editorial”, Nouvelles questions féministes, 1: 3–14.

Quick, Paddy (1977), “The Class Nature of Women’s Oppression”, Review of Radical Political Economics, 9 (3): 42–53.

Ross, Loretta J., Lynn Roberts, Erika Derkas, Whitney Peoples ve Pamela Bridgewater Toure (der.) (2017), Radical Reproductive Justice: Foundations, Theory, Practice, Critique (New York: The Feminist Press).

Swerdlow, Laurel ve Wendy Chavkin (2017) “Motherhood in Fragments: The Disaggregation of Biology and Care”, Davies, Miranda (der.) (2017), Babies for Sale? Transnational Surrogacy, Human Rights and the Politics of Reproduction (Londra: Zed): 19–32.

Twine, France Winddance (2011), Outsourcing the Womb: Race, Class, and Gestational Surrogacy in a Global Market (New York: Routledge).

Vogel, Lise (2000), “Domestic Labor Revisited”, Science & Society, 62 (2): 151– 70.

Vogel, Lise (2013[1983]), Marxism and the Oppression of Women: Toward a Unitary Theory (Leiden: E.J. Brill).

Wittig, Monique (1980), “La pensée straight”, Questions féministes, 7: 45–53.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins (1995), “A Chronology of the New Left and Its Successors, or: Who’s Old-Fashioned Now?”, Socialist Register, 31: 22–49.

Wood. Ellen Meiksins (1998[1986]), The Retreat from Class: A New “True” Socialism, gözden geçirilmiş baskı (Londra ve New York: Verso).

Wood, Ellen Meiksins (2002a), The Origin of Capitalism: A Longer View (Londra ve New York: Verso).

Wood, Ellen Meiksins (2002b), “The Question of Market Dependence”, Journal of Agrarian Change, 2 (1): 50–87.

Kaynak Göster