GÖÇMEN ODAKLI SİVİL TOPLUM OLUŞUMLARI: DEĞİŞEN EYLEMLER VE SİYASETLER

Bu makalenin amacı, uluslararası göç ve sivil toplum ilişkisini göçmenler yararına çalışan oluşumlar üzerinden tartışmaktır. Sivil toplum ve göç ilişkisini anlamak önemlidir çünkü göçmenlere yönelik söylem ve siyasetlerin tümü devlet düzeyiyle eş zamanlı olarak sivil toplum içerisinde de cereyan etmektedir. Devlet politikaları odaklı çalışmalar göç meselesinin toplumsal boyutunun bir kısmını gösterir. Sivil toplumda göçmen odaklı çalışmalar yürüten örgütlenmeler üzerinden bir bakışsa uluslararası göçü farklı açılardan da görmemizi sağlayacaktır. Buradan yola çıkarak, bu makalede uluslararası göçün sivil toplum alanındaki konumlanışı ve göçmenler yararına çalışan örgütlenmelerin eylemleri değerlendirilecektir. Buna ek olarak, göçmen odaklı sivil toplumdaki farklı siyasetler ve ilişkilendikleri vatandaşlık, toplumsal dayanışma, insan hakları gibi toplumsal süreçler üzerine bir tartışma yapılmaktadır. Ayrıca, bu tartışmalar ışığında Türkiye’deki sivil toplum ve göç ilişkisine odaklanılmakta ve var olan çalışmalar üzerinden güncel durumun bir değerlendirmesi yapılmaktadır.

PRO-MIGRANT CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS: CHANGING POLITICS AND ACTIVITIES

The goal of this article is to discuss the relationship between international migration and civil society from the point of view of pro-migrant organisations. It is important to understand the relation between civil society and migration since all the politics and discourses towards migrants takes places also at the level of civil society in parallel to the level of state. Studying only the politics of state depicts the social context of migration only partially. However, a focus on the activities of pro-migrant civil society provides different perspectives towards international migration. Following that, this article considers how the issue of international migration is positioned in civil society and studies the activities of promigrant civil society organisations. In addition to that, the article discusses different politics towards migration in civil society and how these politics relate to certain socio-political processes such as citizenship, solidarity and human rights. In the light of these discussions, the article also focuses the relationship of civil society and migration in Turkey, and makes an overview of the current context by utilising extant literature.

Kaynakça

Agustin, Oscar Garcia ve Martin Bak Jorgensen (2016), “Solidarity without Borders: Gramscian Perspectives on Migration and Civil Society Alliances”, Agustin, Oscar Garcia ve Martin Bak Jorgensen (Der.), Solidarity without Borders: Gramscian Perspectives on Migration and Civil Society Alliances (London: Pluto Press): 3-19.

Akbaş, Emrah (2012), “Göçmenler Arasındaki Dayanışmacı Ağların Dönüşümü: Göçmen Sivil Toplum Örgütlerinin Yeni Misyonu”, Ihlamur-Öner, S. Gülfer ve N. Aslı Şirin Öner (Der.), Küreselleşme Çağında Göç: Kavramlar, Tartışmalar (İstanbul: İletişim): 335-351.

Ambrosini, Maurizio (2015), “NGOs and Health Services for Irregular Immigrants in Italy: When the Protection of Human Rights Challenges the Laws”, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 13(2): 116-134.

Ambrosini, Maurizio (2013), “‘We are Against a Multi-Ethnic Society’: Policies of Exclusion at the Urban Level in Italy”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36 (1): 136- 155.

Ambrosini, Maurizio ve van der Leun, Joanne (2015), “Introduction to the special issue: Implementing human rights: Civil society and migration policies”, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 13 (2), 2015: 103-115.

Amnesty International (2017), “The EU-Turkey deal: Europe’s year of shame”, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/03/the-eu-turkey-dealeuropes-year-of-shame/ (12.9.2019).

Bates, Thomas R. (1975), “Gramsci and the Theory of Hegemony”, Journal of the History of Ideas, 36 (2): 351-366.

BBC (2016), “Why are Thousands of Germans Protesting and Who are Pegida?”, http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/30694252/why-are-thousands-ofgermans-protesting-and-who-are-pegida (30.01.2016).

Castles, Stephen (2000), “International Migration at the Beginning of the Twenty‐ First Century: Global Trends and Issues”, International Social Science Journal, 52 (165): 269-281.

Castles, Stephen (2003), “Towards a Sociology of Forced Migration and Social Transformation”, Sociology, 37 (1): 13–34.

Castles, Stephen (2015), “Migration, Precarious Work, and Rights: Historical and Current Perspectives”, Schierup, Carl-Ulrik, Ronaldo Munck, Branka Likic Brboric, ve Anders Neergaard (Der.), Migration, Precarity and Global Governance: Challenges and Opportunities for Labour (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press): 46-67.

Chauvin, Sébastien ve Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas (2014), “Becoming Less Illegal: Deservingness Frames and Undocumented Migrant Incorporation”, Sociology Compass, 8 (4): 422–432.

CNN (2016), “Germany Reveals Plans to Relax Deportation Rules for Foreign Criminals”, http://edition.cnn.com/2016/01/12/europe/germany-colognemigrants-tensions/ (30.01.2016).

Danış , Didem ve Ayşe Parla (2009), “Nafile Soydaş lık: Irak ve Bulgaristan Türkleri Örneğinde Göçmen, Dernek, Devlet”, Toplum ve Bilim, 114: 131–158.

Diken İnternet Gazetesi (2019), “Suriyeliler Raporu: ‘Kaydı olanlar dahi sınır dışı edildi’”, http://www.diken.com.tr/suriyeliler-raporu-kaydi-olanlar-dahi-sinirdisi-edildi/ (11.8. 2019).

Erdoğdu, Seyhan (2018) “Syrian Refugees in Turkey and Trade Union Responses”, Globalizations, 15 (6): 838-853.

Erdoğdu, Seyhan ve Nazlı Şenses (2015) “Irregular Migrant Labour, Trade Unions and Civil Society Organisations in Turkey”, Schierup, Carl-Ulrik, Ronaldo Munck, Branka Likic-Brboric, ve Anders Neergaard (Der.), Migration, Precarity and Global Governance: Challenges and Opportunities for Labour (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press): 177-196.

Ford, Michele (2004), “Organizing the Unorganizable: Unions, Ngos and Indonesian Migrant Labour”, International Migration, 42 (5): 99-119.

Freeman, Gary (1995), “Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States”, International Migration Review, 29 (4): 881-902.

Freeman, Gary (2006), “National Models, Policy Types, and the Politics of immigration in Liberal Democracies”, West European Politics, 29 (2): 227-247.

Genç, Fırat (2017), “Migration as a Site of Political Struggle. An Evaluation of the Istanbul Migrant Solidarity Network”, Movements, 3 (2): 117-132.

Gencoglu Onbasi, Funda (2015), “Life and Times of Civil Society in Turkey: Issues, Actors, Structures”, N. Ganesan ve Colin Dürkop (Der.), Civil Society and Democracy in Southeast Asia and Turkey (Ankara: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung): 198-230.

Gökbayrak, Şenay ve Seyhan Erdoğdu (2010), “Irregular Migration and Trade Union Responses: The Case of Turkey”, İş, Güç: Endüstri İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 12 (2): 89-114.

Graauw, Els. (2015), “Polyglot Bureaucracies: Nonprofit Advocacy to Create Inclusive City Governments”, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 13 (2): 156-178.

Gramsci, Antonio (1971), Selections from the Prison Notebooks (New York: International Publishers) (Çev. ve Der. Quintin Hoare ve Geoffrey Nowell Smith)

Grugel, Jean ve Nicola Piper (2015), “Global Migration Governance, Social Movements, and the Difficulties of Promoting Migrant Rights”, Schierup, CarlUlrik, Ronaldo Munck, Branka Likic-Brboric, ve Anders Neergaard (Der.), Migration, Precarity and Global Governance: Challenges and Opportunities for Labour (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press): 261-278.

Grugel, Jean ve Nicola Piper (2011), “Global Governance, Economic Migration and The Difficulties of Social Activism”, International Sociology, 26 (4): 435–454.

Işın, Engin (2009), “Citizenship in flux: The figure of the activist citizen”, Subjectivity, 29 (1): 367-388.

İçduygu, Ahmet, Sema Erder ve Gençkaya, Ömer Faruk (2014), “Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Göç Politikaları, 1923-2023: Ulus-Devlet Oluşumundan Ulus-Ötesi Dönüşümlere”, Mirekoç Araş tırma Raporları 1/2014, İstanbul

Kaşlı, Zeynep (2016), “Who do Migrant Associations Represent? The Role of ‘Ethnic Deservingness’ and Legal Capital in Migrants’ Rights Claims in Turkey” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42 (12): 1996–2012.

Kirişçi, Kemal (2007), “Turkey: A Country of Transition from Emigration to Immigration”, Mediterranean Politics, 12 (1): 91-97.

Kutlu, Zümray (2015), “Bekleme Odasından Oturma Odasına Suriyeli Mültecilere Yönelik Çalışmalar Yürü ten Sivil Toplum Kuruluşlarına Dair Kısa Bir Değerlendirme”, Açık Toplum Vakfı ve Anadolu Kültür.

Laubenthal, Barbara (2007), “The Emergence of Pro-Regularization Movements in Western Europe”, International Migration, 45 (3): 101-133.

Mackreath, Helen ve Şevin Gülfer Sağnıç (2017), “Türkiye’de Sivil Toplum ve Suriyeli Mülteciler”, Yurttaşlık Derneği, İstanbul.

Marciniak, Katarzyna (2013), “Legal/illegal: Protesting Citizenship in Fortress America”, Citizenship Studies, 17 (2): 260-277.

McNevin Anne (2007), “Irregular Migrants, Neoliberal Geographies and Spatial Frontiers of ‘the Political”, Review of International Studies, 33 (4): 655–674.

Mezzadra, Sandro (2011), “The Gaze of Autonomy: Capitalism, Migration, and Social Struggles”, Squire, Vicki (Der.), The Contested Politics of Mobility: Borderzones and Irregularity (New York: Routledge): 121–142.

Milkman, Ruth (2000) “Immigrant Organizing and The New Labor Movement in Los Angeles”, Critical Sociology, 26: 59- 81.

Özgür-Baklacıoğlu, Nurcan (2006) “Türkiye’nin Balkan Politikasında Rumeli ve Balkan Göçmen Dernekleri”, Cerit Mazlum, Semra ve Erhan Doğan (Der.), Sivil Toplum ve DışPolitika (İstanbul: Bağlam Yayıncılık): 77–117.

Penninx, Rinus ve Judith Roosblad (2000), Trade Unions, Immigration and Immigrants in Europe, 1960-1993: A Comparative Study of Attitudes and Actions of Trade Unions in Seven West European Countries (New York: Berghahn Books).

Piper, Nicola ve Stefan Rother (2012), “Let's Argue About Migration: Advancing a Right(S) Discourse via Communicative Opportunities”, Third World Quarterly 33 (9): 1735-1750.

Rother, Stefan (2019), “The Global Forum on Migration and Development as a Venue of State Socialisation: a Stepping Stone for Multi-level Migration Governance?”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45 (8): 1258-1274.

Rother, Stefan (2010), “The GFMD from Manila to Athens: One Step Forward, One Step Back?”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 19 (1), 157-173.

Rozakou, Katerina (2017), “Solidarity #Humanitarianism: The Blurred Boundaries of Humanitarianism in Greece”, Etnofoor, 29(2): 99-104.

Schierup, Carl-Ulrik, Branka Likic-Brboric, Raul Delgado Wise ve Gülay Toksöz (2018), “Migration, Civil Society and Global Governance: An İntroduction to the Special İssue”, Globalizations, 15 (6): 733-745.

Soykan, Cavidan ve Nazlı Şenses (2018), “The Problem of Representation: Civil Society Organizations From Turkey in The GFMD Process”, Globalizations, 15 (6): 824-837.

Şenses, Nazlı (2012), Rights and Democratic Accountability: A Comparative Study On Irregular Immigration in Greece, Spain And Turkey (Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi: Bilkent Üniversitesi).

Toksöz, Gülay, Seyhan Erdoğdu ve Selmin Kaşka (2012) Türkiye’ye Düzensiz Emek Göçü ve Göçmenlerin İşgücü Piyasasındaki Durumları (Ankara: IOM)

Toumarkine, Alexandre (2001) “Kafkas ve Balkan Göçmen Dernekleri”, Yerasimos, Stefanos vd. (Der.) Türkiye’de Sivil Toplum ve Milliyetçilik (İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları): 425–450.

Tyler, Imogen ve Katarzyna Marciniak (2013), “Immigrant Protest: An Introduction”, Citizenship Studies, 17 (2): 143-156

UNHCR (2019), Turkey: Key Facts and Figures October 2019, https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/72544.pdf (21.12.2019)

van der Leun, Joanne ve Harmen Bouter (2015), “Gimme Shelter: Inclusion and Exclusion of Irregular Immigrants in Dutch Civil Society”, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 13 (2): 135-155.

Kaynak Göster