BÜYÜK HİDROLİK YAPILAR-SOĞUK SAVAŞSINIRAŞAN SU SORUNLARI İLİŞKİSİ VE SOĞUK SAVAŞ’IN BIRAKTIĞI MİRAS

20. yüzyıl, büyük hidrolik yapıların sayısının tüm dünyada hızla arttığı bir asır olmuştur. Özellikle Soğuk Savaş dönemine denk gelen 1950-80 yılları arasındaki büyük artış dikkati çekmektedir. Bu çalışma, Soğuk Savaş, büyük hidrolik yapılar ve sınıraşan su ilişkileri olguları arasındaki ilişkiyi analiz etmek maksadıyla hazırlanmıştır. Dünyanın faklı coğrafyalarında yer alan sınıraşan su havzalarından elde edilen örneklerden yola çıkarak bu çalışma Soğuk Savaş’ın koşullandırdığı küresel siyasi bağlamın ve bunun bölgesel yansımalarının bir taraftan büyük hidrolik yapıların artışına uygun politik ortam hazırladığını ve böylelikle sınıraşan su ilişkilerini doğrudan etkilediğini ortaya koyarken; diğer yandan sınıraşan su havzalarındaki hidropolitik dinamikler ve genel siyasi bağlam ilişkisinden hareketle Soğuk Savaş’ın bölgesel yansımalarının kıyıdaş devletler arasındaki su ilişkilerini koşullandırdığını savunmaktadır. Son, olarak her ne kadar büyük hidrolik yapılar inşa etme motivasyonunun gelişmiş devletlerde gerilediği görülse de Soğuk Savaş döneminde gelişen bu bakış açısının gelişmekte olan devletlerde halen hâkim bakış açısı olduğu ortaya konulmaktadır.

THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE COLD WAR, BIG HYDRAULIC WORKS AND TRANSBOUNDARY ISSUES AND THE LEGACY OF THE COLD WAR

It is no exaggeration to describe the 20th century as the century of the big hydraulic infrastructures. Notably, the number of large dams has proliferated during the period between 1950-80 that corresponds to the Cold War era. This study seeks to analyze the relationship among the Cold War, the large hydraulic works and the transboundary water relations. Gathering empirical evidence from the different transboundary water basins, this study argues that the Cold War influenced large hydraulic works and transboundary water relations in two ways. On the one hand, the Cold War era constituted a conducive political environment for the proliferation of large hydraulic works, and henceforth, it has strongly affected transboundary hydropolitical dynamics. On the other hand, the Cold War has conditioned the regional contexts in which transboundary water relations take place. Finally, the paper also finds that even though the motivation to build large hydraulic works, which is the legacy of the Cold War era, appears to slow down in the developed countries, it is still intact in the developing countries.

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Kaynak Göster