Over the last decades, technological advancements were carried out with a great pace and that forced industries to drastic changes and paradigm shifts. These ad- vancements provide new opportunities that arise with their new requirements. Due to some of these requirements, AEC industry unwittingly caused some cru- cial global issues which are gaining momentum exponentially, cannot be ignored anymore. The main reason of this situation is identified as many significant deci- sions which directly affect the performance of the building and the relationship of the building with natural and built environment are taken, even if there is no certain and valid information. The focus of the study is to discuss and evaluate the collected data and the obtained findings from previously implemented 5 case studies with 25 unique participants in a same context to re-evaluate and under- stand how BIM can help designers in the early stages of architectural design, most particularly in decision making processes. In addition, we also focus on inves- tigating what opportunities it provides, what drawbacks it causes and what the user feedbacks about using the tool in these stages are. The focus of this study is not to offer an alternative way for traditional design practices but to explore if these kinds of tools have advantages for conceptual designing and/or design supporting. To achieve these aims, we have used quantitative (questionaire), qual- itative (pure observation, participant observation, in-depth interviews and focus groups) and protocol analysis (retrospective analysis) methods.
AGC. (n.d.) The Contractors’ Guide to BIM. http://www.agc.org.
Akin, O. (1979). Exploration of the design process. Design Methods and Theories, 13 (3/4), 115-119.
Alexander, C. (1964). Notes on the Synthesis of Form (Vol. 5). Harvard University Press.
Arora, H. (2009). Building decision support for dynamic decision making: A design science approach. Arizona State University.
Attia, S., De Herde, A. (2011). Ear- ly design simulation tools for net zero energy buildings: a comparison of ten tools, In: Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011: 12th Conference of International Building Performance Sim- ulation Association, Sydney, Australia, pp. 94–101
Azhar, S. (2011). Building informa- tion modeling (BIM): Trends, benefits, risks, and challenges for the AEC in- dustry. Leadership and management in engineering, 11(3), 241-252.
Azhar, S., Brown, J., Farooqui, R. (2009). BIM-based sustainability anal- ysis: An evaluation of building perfor- mance analysis software. In Proceed- ings of the 45th ASC annual conference (Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 90-93).
Architecture 2030. (n.d.) http://goo. gl/o4FC5X. Brehmer, B. (1992). Dynamic deci- sion making: Human control of com- plex systems. Acta psychologica, 81(3), 211-241.
Buchanan, R. (2001). Design re- search and the new learning. Design issues, 17(4), 3-23.
buildingSmart. (n.d.) www.build- ingsmart.com.
Carmel‐Gilfilen, C., Portillo, M. (2010). Creating mature thinkers in in- terior design: Pathways of intellectual development. Journal of Interior de- sign, 35(3), 1-20.
Casakin, H. (2008). Factors Of De- sign Problem-Solving And Their Con- tribution To Creativity. Open house international, 33(1).
Çavuşoğlu Ö. H., Çağdaş, G. (2017). Why Do We Need Building Informa- tion Modeling (BIM) in Conceptual Design Phase?. Çağdaş, G., Özkar, M., Gül, L. F., & Gürer, E. (Eds.). Comput- er-Aided Architectural Design: Future Trajectories: 17th International Con- ference, CAAD Futures 2017, Istanbul, Turkey, July 10-14, 2017, 121-135.
Çavuşoğlu, Ö. H. (2015a). Building Information Modeling Tools: Oppor- tunities for Early Stages of Architec- tural Design. CAADRIA 2015 - 20th International Conference on Com- puter-Aided Architectural Design Re- search in Asia: Emerging Experiences in the Past, Present and Future of Digi- tal Architecture, 427-436.
Çavuşoğlu, Ö. H. (2015b). The Posi- tion of BIM Tools in Conceptual De- sign Phase: Parametric Design and En- ergy Modeling Capabilities. eCAADe 2015 Volume 1 Real Time, 607-612.
Deutsch, R. (2011). BIM and inte- grated design: strategies for architec- tural practice. John Wiley & Sons. Eastman, C. M., Eastman, C., Te- icholz, P., & Sacks, R. (2011). BIM handbook: A guide to building infor- mation modeling for owners, manag- ers, designers, engineers and contrac- tors. John Wiley & Sons.
Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., & Liston, K. (2008). BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Model- ing for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors. Edwards, W. (1962). Dynamic decision theory and probabilistic informa- tion processings. Human factors, 4(2), 59-74.
Foqué, R. (2010). Building knowl- edge in architecture. ASP/VUBPRESS/ UPA.
Foqué, R. (2011). Building knowl- edge by design. Texto apresentado na IV Jornadas Internacionales Sobre In- vestigación En Arquitectura Y Urban- ismo.
Galle, P., & Kroes, P. (2014). Science and design: Identical twins?. Design Studies, 35(3), 201-231.
Galle, P. (2011). Foundational and instrumental design theory. Design Is- sues, 27(4), 81-94.
Gero, J. S., & Mc Neill, T. (1998). An approach to the analysis of design pro- tocols. Design studies, 19(1), 21-61.
Garber, R. (2009). Optimisation stories: The impact of building infor- mation modelling on contemporary design practice. Architectural Design, 79(2), 6-13.
Gervásio, H., Santos, P., Martins, R., & da Silva, L. S. (2014). A macro-com- ponent approach for the assessment of building sustainability in early stages of design. Building and Environment, 73, 256-270.
Goel, V. (1995). Sketches of thought. MIT Press.
Goldschmidt, G. (1989). Problem representation versus domain of solu- tion in architectural design teaching. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 204-215.
Goldschmidt, G. (2014). Linkogra- phy: unfolding the design process. Mit Press.
Gonzalez, C. (2005). Decision sup- port for real-time, dynamic deci- sion-making tasks. Organizational Be- havior and Human Decision Processes, 96(2), 142-154.
Granadeiro, V., Correia, J. R., Leal, V. M., & Duarte, J. P. (2013). Envelope-re- lated energy demand: A design indi- cator of energy performance for resi- dential buildings in early design stages. Energy and Buildings, 61, 215-223.
Gratia, E., & De Herde, A. (2003). Design of low energy office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 35(5), 473-491.
GSA, GSA BIM Guide. (n.d.) https:// goo.gl/3Vamrd.
Holm, D. (1993). Building thermal analyses: what the industry needs: the architect’s perspective. Building and Environment, 28(4), 405-407.
Hong, T., Chou, S. K., & Bong, T. Y. (2000). Building simulation: an over- view of developments and information sources. Building and environment, 35(4), 347-361.
Kerstholt, J. H., & Raaijmakers, J. G. (1997). Decision making in dynamic task environments. Decision making: Cognitive models and explanations, 205-217.
Kleinmuntz, D. N. (1985). Cognitive heuristics and feedback in a dynamic decision environment. Management Science, 31(6), 680-702.
Krygiel, E., Nies, B. (2008). Green BIM: Successful Sustainable Design with Building Information Modeling. Wiley, Hoboken.
Kymmell, W. (2007). Building Information Modeling: Planning and Managing Construction Projects with 4D CAD and Simulations (McGraw-Hill Construction Series): Planning and Managing Construction Projects with 4D CAD and Simulations. McGraw Hill Professional.
Lerch, F. J., & Harter, D. E. (2001). Cognitive support for real-time dy- namic decision making. Information systems research, 12(1), 63-82.
Liu, Y. T., & Architecture Group. (1996). Is designing one search or two? A model of design thinking involving symbolism and connectionism. Design Studies, 17(4), 435-449.
Matos, G., & Wagner, L. (1998). Consumption of materials in the Unit- ed States, 1900–1995. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 23(1), 107-122.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for pro- cessing information. Psychological re- view, 63(2), 81.
NBIS, Building Information Mod- eling (BIM). (n.d.) http://www.wbdg. org/building-informationmodel- ing-bim.
Oxman, R. (1996). Cognition and design. Design studies, 17(4), 337-340. Pinch, S., Sunley, P., & Macmillen, J. (2010). Cognitive mapping of creative practice: A case study of three English design agencies. Geoforum, 41(3), 377- 387.
Roodman, D. M., Lenssen, N. K., & Peterson, J. A. (1995). A building revolution: how ecology and health concerns are transforming construction (pp. 11-11). Washington, DC: World- watch Institute.
Schlueter, A., & Thesseling, F. (2009). Building information model based en- ergy/exergy performance assessment in early design stages. Automation in construction, 18(2), 153-163.
Simon, H. A. (1960). The new sci- ence of management decision.
Smith, D. K., & Tardif, M. (2009). Building information modeling: a stra- tegic implementation guide for archi- tects, engineers, constructors, and real estate asset managers. John Wiley & Sons.
Sprague Jr, R. H. (1980). A frame- work for the development of decision support systems. MIS quarterly, 1-26.
The European Union: Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Par- liament and of the Council of 25 October 2012. (2012). Official Jour- nal of the European Union no. 55. doi:10.3000/19770677.L_2012.315.eng United Nations. (2017). World Pop- ulation Prospects 2017. https://goo. gl/48ujS6.
United Nations. (2005). Population Division of the Department of Eco- nomicand Social Affairs, World Pop- ulation Prospects: The 2004 Revision.
Wang, Y., Patel, S., Patel, D., Wang, Y. (2003). A layered reference model of the brain. In Cognitive Informat- ics, 2003. Proceedings. The Second IEEE International Conference on (pp. 7-17). IEEE.
Wilson, R. A., & Keil, F. C. (Eds.). (2001). The MIT encyclopedia of the cognitive sciences. MIT press.
Woo, H. R. (2005). Creative Abilities in Design. The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, 15(1), 101-113.