OSMANLILAR DÖNEMİNDE SELANİK'TE ASIRLAR BOYUNCA SÜREGİDEN YAHUDİ MEVCUDİYETİ

1492’de ilan edilen Elhambra Kararnamesi Yahudilerin İspanya’dan sürülmesini emrediyordu. Bunu takip eden dönemde İberya yarımadasının Yahudi mültecileri başta Selanik olmak üzere çeşitli Osmanlı kentlerine yerleşmeye başladılar. Onbeşinci yüzyılın sonlarından itibaren, şehirdeki Müslümanlar sayıca Yahudilerden sonra geliyorlardı. Aslında Selanik Osmanlı Sultanı 2. Murat tarafından fethedilmeden önce de şehirde Yunanca konuşan ve Romaniot adı verilen yerli bir Yahudi cemaat bulunuyordu ancak onların büyük bir kısmı İstabul’un 1453 yılındaki fethinden sonra yeni başkenti ekonomik olarak canlandırmak üzere İstanbul’a yerleştirilmişlerdi. Buna bağlı olarak Sefarad Yahudileri yerli Yahudileri de sayıca geçmişlerdi. İlginçtir ki, şehrin yeni Yahudi ve Müslüman cemaatleri, Rum Ortodokslardan daha kalabalık hale gelmişlerdi. Selanik bir Yahudi şehriydi ve bu durum şehrin 1913’te Yunanistan Krallığı’nın bir parçası haline gelmesine kadar sürdü. Türk-Yunan Mübadelesi 1923 , Filistin’e göçler ve Holokost’tu takiben Selanik tüm Yahudi ve Müslüman nüfusundan arındırılmış, homojen bir Yunan şehri haline gelmişti. Ancak her ne kadar geçmişte bir İslam impratorluğunun Yahudi kenti olarak varlığını sürdürmüş olsa da, hem Yunan hem de Türk tarihyazımı şehrin Yahudi geçmişini görmezden gelmeyi tercih etti. Buna bağlı olarak, bu makalede şehrin Yahudi geçmişinin ekonomik, sosyal ve kültürel boyutları ele alınmaktadır

JEWISH PRESENCE IN OTTOMAN SALONIKA THROUGHOUT CENTURIES

With the arrival of the Sephardim following the issue of Alhambra Decree that ordered the expulsion of the Jews of Spain in 1492, Salonika became a Jewish center. Beginning from the late fifteenth century, Muslims happened to be the second largest group coming after the Jewish population. Before the conquest of the city by the Ottoman Sultan Murad II in 1430, Salonika already had local Greek-speaking Jews called Romaniots, many of whom were forced to resettle in Istanbul after its conquest in 1453 to revive the economy of the new capital. Accordingly, the Iberian refugees outnumbered the local Jews. Interestingly enough, the new Jewish and Muslim inhabitants of the city also exceeded in number the indegeneous Greek Orthodox population and Salonika remained as a Jewish city until it was annexed to the Kingdom of Greece in 1913. Following the Turco-Greek Population Exchange 1923 , migration flows to Palestine and the Holocaust, the city became a pure Greek city which was cleared from its Muslims and Jews. Despite its history as a Jewish center within an Islamic Empire, Salonika was never accepted as one of the major centers of Judaism in Turkish and Greek nationalist historiographies. For this very reason the article at hand aims at showing the Jewish life with its economic, social and cultural dimensions in Salonika throughout its presence as an Ottoman city

Kaynakça

Barkey, K. (2008). Empire of difference: the Ottomans in comparative perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ben-Naeh, Y. (2009). Sultanlar diyarında Yahudiler: 17. yüzyılda Osmanlı Yahudi toplumu. İstanbul: Goa Basım Yayın.

Bowman, S. (2008). Greece: A Jewish history. Middletown: American Library Association.

Braude, B. (1982). Formation myths of the millet system. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire vol.1. B. Braude and B. Lewis eds. New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers.

Cahen, C. Dhimma. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2, 227-231.

Eldem, E. (2014). Salonica and its Jewish history in Turkish historiography. Jewish History, 28(3), 431-438.

Epstein, M. A. (1982). The leadership of the Ottoman Jews in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire vol.1. B. Braude, B. Lewis eds. New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers.

Esformes, M. (2001). Three Sefardic folktales from Salonika, Greece. Shofar, 19(4), 15-24.

Eyal, Ginio. (2014). Jews and European subjects in eighteenth-century Salonica: the Ottoman

perspective. Jewish History 28, 289-312.

Fleming, K. (2008). Greece: a Jewish history. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

---------. (2014). Salonika’s Jews: A Metropolitan History. Jewish History, 28, 449-455.

Galante, A. (2000). Sabetay Sevi ve Sabetaycıların gelenekleri. İstanbul: Zvi-Geyik Yayınları.

Goffman, D. (2002). Jews in early modern commerce. Jews, Turks, Ottomans: A shared history, fifteenth toward the twentieth century. A. Levy ed. New York: Syracuse University Press.

Güleryüz, N. A. The History of Turkish Jews. http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~lanah/balkanjews/guleryuzhistory.pdf (accessed March 12, 2017).

Hacker, R. J. (1982). Ottoman policy toward the Jews and Jewish attitudes toward the Ottomans during the fifteenth century. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. B. Braude and B. Lewis eds. New York, London: Holmes & Meier Publishers.

İnalcık, H.(2002). Foundations of Ottoman-Jewish Cooperation. Jews, Turks, Ottomans: A shared history, fifteenth toward the twentieth century. A. Levy ed. New York: Syracuse University Press.

Levy, A. (1992). The Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire.Princeton: The Darwin Press.

---------. (1994). The Ottoman Jewish symbiosis. The Jews of the Ottoman Empire. A. Levy ed. Princeton: The Darwin Press.

Lowry, H. W. (1994). When did the Sephardim Arrive in Salonica? The testimony of the Ottomam tax-registers, 1478-1613. The Jews of the Ottoman Empire. A. Levy ed. Princeton: The Darwin Press.

Mazower, M. (2005). Salonica: City of ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews: 1430-1950. London: Harper Perennial.

Molho, R. (1993). Popular anti-Semitism and state policy in Salonika during the city’s annexation to Greece. Jewish Social Studies, 50(3/4), 253-264.

Olson, R. W. (1979). Jews in the Ottoman Empire in the lights of new documents. Jewish Social Studies, 41(1), 75- 88.

Rodrigue, A. (1990). French Jews, Turkish Jews: The Alliance Israelite Universelle and the Politics of Jewish Schooling in Turkey 1860-1925. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Rozen, M. (1994). Individual and community in the Jewish society of the Ottoman Empire: Salonika in the sixteenth century. The Jews of the Ottoman Empire. A. Levy ed. Princeton: The Darwin Press.

---------.(2017). Money, power, politics and the Great Salonika Fire of 1917. Jewish Social Studies, 22(2), 74-115.

Shaw, S. J. (1991). The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, London: Macmillan.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. “Salonika.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005422. Accessed on [04.06.2017].