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Owen with Rogers (1999) views evaluation as a type of enquiry that is research based and that uses systematic methods and procedures derived from the scientific method to obtain knowledge that can be useful in ‘improving’ the program evaluated. The purpose of formal evaluation is most often specific, and it may be undertaken for ascertaining accountability, for organisational development or for the generation of knowledge (Kavanagh & Henry, 2002). In essence, however, evaluation is specifically about making value judgements which are based on data collected through observations and descriptions (Huitt, 1999), and this means that evaluation is at least in part a political process. Therefore, as a political process, evaluation may not recognise the value-pluralism (Guba & Lincoln, 1989, p. 34) which is often characteristic of the complex milieu which the evaluated program (the evaluand) affects – such as, for example, the social contexts of learners and their dynamics. As a political exercise, the evaluation process can become simply a “ritual of verification” (Power, 1997), which focuses on audit-type research that is used essentially for certification purposes and to comfort those stakeholders who control the program and have commissioned the evaluation. Evaluation can thus becomes subject to what Bishop (1994, p. 182) has called “…the ideological power of agenda setting”.