FİNANSAL GELİŞMİŞLİĞİN YENİLENEBİLİR ENERJİ TÜKETİMİ ÜZERİNDEKİ UZUN DÖNEMLİ ETKİLERİ: G-7 ÜLKELERİ ÖRNEĞİ

Öz Çevre kirliliğinin küresel çapta hissedilen ekonomik maliyetleri yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının önemini her geçen gün arttırmaktadır. Artan bu önem kendisini çevre ekonomisi literatüründe de göstermektedir. Özellikle son 10 yıllık dönemde alana ilişkin araştırmalar, yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının uzun dönem belirleyicilerinin neler olduğunu belirlemeye yöneliktir. Çevre ekonomisi literatüründeki bu eğilime uygun olacak şekilde bu çalışmanın amacı, finansal gelişmişlik ile yenilenebilir enerji tüketimi arasındaki uzun dönemli ilişkiyi G-7 ülkeleri için 1991-2011 yıllarını kapsayacak şekilde incelemektir. Araştırmanın analiz bulgularına göre, yenilenebilir enerji tüketimi ile reel GYSİH, toplam enerji tüketimi, petrol fiyatları ve finansal gelişmişlik arasında uzun dönemli bir ilişki vardır. Yenilenebilir enerji tüketimine ilişkin uzun dönem esneklik katsayı sonuçları çerçevesinde ise toplam enerji tüketimi, petrol fiyatları ve finansal gelişmişlik, yenilenebilir enerji tüketimini arttırmaktadır. Ekonomik büyümenin ise yenilenebilir enerji kaynakları tüketimi üzerinde uzun dönemde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkisi yoktur. PMG tahminci sonuçlarına göre, finansal gelişmişlik düzeyi arttıkça, yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarına olan talepte artmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın ampirik bulguları, finansal gelişmişlik düzeyindeki artışların uzun dönemde çevre dostu enerji kaynaklarına olan talebi arttıran önemli tetikleyicilerden biri olduğunu ortaya çıkarmaktadır.  Bu sonuçtan hareketle, politika yapıcılari sürdürülebilir kalkınma hedeflerine ulaşmak için finansal sistem içerisinde yer alan şirketlerin yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarına olan taleplerini arttıracak teşvik ve vergi politikalarını uygulamaya koymalı ve finansal düzenlemeler yoluyla kamu-özel sektör işbirliğinde oluşacak yatırım imkanlarını arttırmalıdır.

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