ESNEKLİK KAVRAMI ve EMEK PİYASALARINDA ESNEKLİK

Öz Küreselleşme ve hızlı teknolojik değişme, dünya ekonomisinde geniş kapsamlı bir yeniden yapılanmayla birlikte köklü değişiklilere yol açmaktadır. Bu değişim, emek süreci, çalışma ilişkileri ve emek piyasalarını da derinden etkilemekte ve dönüştürmektedir. Savaş sonrası dönemi karakterize eden Fordist-Taylorist üretim modeli bu değişime ayak uyduramayıp çökerken, temel özelliği esnek olan post-fordist bir üretim modeli tüm dünyada yaygınlaşmaktadır. Bu değişim ve dalgalanma, işletmelerin ve emek sürecinin esnek olmasını gerektirmektedir. Son otuz yıla damgasını vurmasına rağmen, esnek çalışma ve emek piyasalarında esneklik konusunda ne ortak bir yaklaşım ne bir tanım mevcuttur. Bu kavramının farklı boyutlarının incelenmesinde benzer bir durum söz konusudur. Esnekliğin ve esnek çalışmasının boyutları ile ilgili olarak farklı yazarların farklı kavram ve tanımlar kullandıkları, aynı kavramı kullansalar bile tam olarak aynı şeyleri kast etmedikleri görülmektedir. Gerek işveren ve gerekse de işçiler için de bu kavram oldukça farklı şeyler ifade etmektedir. Kısmen bu farklılık kısmen ülkelerin tarihsel geçmişi, endüstriyel teamül ve gelenekleri, çalışma ilişkileri ve kısmen de yazarların ideolojik yaklaşımlarıyla ilişkilendirilse de bu alanda kavramsal bir kargaşa süregitmektedir. Bu çalışmada, esneklik kavramının ve emek piyasalarındaki türlerinin ne olduğu açıklanmaktadır. Globalization and rapid technological change have resulted in a major restructuring process in the world economy along with extensive alterations. These changes have transformed considerably labour process, labour relations, labour markets. While the Fordist-Taylorist production methods characterizing the post-war epoch failed to adjust to the changes and collapsed, a new production paradigm whose basic feature is flexibility, expanding all over the world. This change and fluctuations require firms being more flexible. Although characterizing the last 30 years, there is no common definition or an approach about the flexible working and flexibility in labour markets. This is also a case for the analyses of the different aspects of the term. In relation to the aspects of flexibility and flexible working, it has been observed that different writer use different terms and concepts for the same thing, even they uses the same concept they do not mean the same thing. These terms mean quite different things for workers than employers. Although this differences can be partially be attributed to each country's past industrial practice and traditions and labour relations and also to the ideological approach of the writers the conceptual confusion sill continues. This study intends to explain the type of flexible working and flexibility in labour markets.  

Kaynakça

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