Anahtar Kelimeler:


The Relationship between Coal Consumption, Income Level and CO2Emissions in Turkey

As an energy source, coal has had an important place throughout the history of the development of societies. On the other hand, the environmental problems that arise from the fact that the coal is a fossil fuel have made coal-based energy politics controversial. This study examines the relationship between coal consumption, income level and CO2 emissions in Turkey for the period of 1965-2016. The findings of the time series analysis support the Environmental Kuznets Curve EKC hypothesis and conservation hypothesis in the long term in Turkey for the mentioned period.


Akbostancı, E., Türüt-Aşık, S. ve Tunç, G. İ. (2009), “The Relationship between Income and Environment in Turkey: Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve?”, Energy Policy, 37, s.861-867.

Apergis, N. ve Payne, J. E. (2009), “Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Central America: Evidence from a Panel Cointegration and Error Correction Model”, Energy Economics, 31, p.211-216.

Apergis, N. ve Payne, J. E. (2010), “Coal Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries”, Energy Policy, 38, p.1353-1359.

Atıcı, C. ve Kurt, F. (2007), “Türkiye'nin Dış Ticareti ve Çevre Kirliliği: Çevresel Kuznets Eğrisi Yaklaşımı”, Tarım Ekonomisi Dergisi, 13(2), s.61-69.

Bates, B. C., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Wu, S. and Palutikof, J. P. (2008), “Climate Change and Water” Technical Paper of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change, IPPC Secretariat, Geneva.

Bildirici, M. E. ve Bakırtaş, T. (2014), “The Relationship among Oil, Natural Gas and Coal Consumption and Economic Growth in BRICTS (Brazil, Russian, India, China, Turkey and South Africa) Countries”, Energy, 65, p.134-144.

Bozdağlıoğlu, E. Y. ve Çakır, M. (2013), “Economic Growth and Environmental Quality in Turkey: Are They Opposite Concepts?”, International Journal of Economics and Finance Studies, 5(1), p.85-95.

Bozkurt, H. (2007), Zaman Serileri Analizi. Bursa, Ekin Kitabevi.

BP (British Petroleum), (2017), Statistical Review of World Energy 2017. Available at: economics/statistical-review-2017/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2017- underpinning-data.xlsx, 23.11.2017.

Çil Yavuz, N. (2014), “Durağanlığın Belirlenmesinde KPSS ve ADF Testleri”, İktisat Fakültesi Mecmuası, 54, p.239-247.

Govindaraju, V. G. R. C. ve Tang, C. F. (2013), “The Dynamic Links between CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth and Coal Consumption in China and India”, Applied Energy, 104, p.310-318.

Grossman, G. M. ve Krueger, A. B. (1991), “Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement”, NBER Working Paper No: 3914.

Jin-ke, L., Feng-hua, W. ve Hua-ling, S. (2009), “Differences in Coal Consumption Patterns and Economic Growth between Developed and Developing Countries”, Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 1, p.1744-1750.

Johansen, S. ve Juselius, K. (1990), “Maximum Likelihood Estimation Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models”, Econometrica, 55, p.1151-1180.

Johansen, S. (1988), “Statistical Analysis of Cointegrating Vectors”, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12, p.231-254.

Kuznets, S. (1955), “Economic Growth and Income Inequality”, The American Economic Review, 45(1), p.1-28.

Li, R. ve Leung, G. C. K. (2012), “Coal Consumption and Economic Growth in China”, Energy Policy, 40, p.438-443.

Öcal, O., Öztürk, İ. ve Aslan, A. (2013), “Coal Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey” International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 3(2), p.193-198.

Özataç, N., Gökmenoğlu, K. K. ve Taşpınar, N. (2017), “Testing the EKC Hypothesis by Considering Trade Openness, Urbanization, and Financial Development: The Case of Turkey” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, p.16690-16701.

Pao, H. ve Tsai, C. (2011), “Multivariate Granger Causality between CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) and GDP (Gross Domestic Product): Evidence from a Panel of BRIC (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, and China) Countries”, Energy, 36(1), p.685-693.

MENR (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources), (2017), “Kömür”, 05.09.2017.

Saboori, B., Sulaiman, J., ve Mohd, S. (2012), “Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in Malaysia: A Cointegration Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve”, Energy Policy 51, p.184-191.

Song, T., Zheng, T., ve Tong, L. (2008), “An Empirical Test of the Environmental Kuznets Curve in China: A Panel Cointegration Approach”, China Economic Review, 19, p.381- 392.

TCE (Turkish Coal Enterprises), (2016), “Coal Sector Report” File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FSekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%2FSEKT%C3 %96R%20RAPORU%202015%2030.06.2015%20SON.pdf, 04.09.2017. TURKSTAT (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu), (2017), “Enerji İstatistikleri”, 02.08.2017.

Worldbank (2017),, 25.11.2017

Yang, H. (2000), “Coal Consumption and Economic Growth in Taiwan”, Energy Sources, 22(2), p.109-115.

Yurttagüler, İ. M. ve Kutlu, S. (2017), “An Econometric Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Case of Turkey”, The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems, 5(1), p.116-126.