Üniversite Öğrencilerinde Psikolojik Danışma Sürecini Erken Bırakma: Nedenler ve Öneriler

Bu çalışmanın amacı üniversite psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik merkezine başvuran üniversite öğrencilerinin psikolojik danışma sürecini erken bırakma oranını, erken bırakan danışanların devam ettikleri oturum sayılarını ve erken bırakma nedenlerini belirlemektir. Çalışma kapsamında Anadolu Üniversitesi psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik merkezine başvuran ve danışma sürecini erken bırakan 206 üniversite öğrencisine ilişkin veriler analiz edilmiş ve bu danışanlardan 48’ine “Erken Bırakma Nedenleri Anketi” uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda en sık ifade edilen erken bırakma nedeninin ‘Artık yardım almak istememem”, en az ifade edilen erken bırakma nedeninin ise ‘Bir oturumu istemeden kaçırdığım için diğer oturuma gelmek istememem’ şeklinde olduğu gözlenmiştir. Psikolojik yardım sürecini erken bırakmanın; danışandan, psikolojik danışmandan ve süreç dışı problemlerden kaynaklandığı gözlenmiştir. Bulgular ilgili alan yazın eşliğinde tartışılmış, ileride gerçekleştirilecek çalışmalar ve erken bırakma oranlarının azaltılabilmesi için önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

Dropping Out of Counseling Process Among College Students: Reasons and Recommendations

The aim of this study is to determine dropping out rates of the counseling, the number of sessions that premature terminators complete and drop out reasons. In this scope, data was gathered from 206 clients who terminated counseling process prematurely while they were attending to Counseling and Guidance Center of Anadolu University. Also, 48 of 206 clients filled in “Drop out Reasons Questionnaire”. Findings of research revealed that the most popular reason that was stated by clients for dropping out of counseling process is “I have no enough time for counseling” and the least popular one was “because of missing a session thus I didn’t attend the next session”. It was observed that dropping out of counseling process is derived from reasons about client, counselor and the reasons related to out of process. Findings were being discussed in company with literature and some suggestions were made to decrease drop out rates. 

Kaynakça

Ataoğlu, A., Özkan, M., Tutkun, H. Ve Maraş, A. (2000). Alprazolam and cognitive behavior therapy in treatment of panic disorder. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 30(2), 167-172.

Bados, A., Balaguer, G. ve Saldaña, C. (2007). The efficacy of cognitive– behavioral therapy and the problem of drop‐out. Journal of clinical psycho- logy,63(6), 585-592.

Baekeland, F., & Lundwall, L. (1975). Dropping out of treatment: a critical review. Psychological bulletin, 82(5), 738.

Barrett, M. S., Chua, W. J., Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, M. B. ve Thomp- son, D. (2008). Early withdrawal from mental health treatment: Implications for psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Tra- ining,45(2), 247.

Bell, L. (2001). What predicts failure to engage in or drop out from tre- atment for bulimia nervosa and treatment?. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 8(6), 424- 435.

what implications does this have for

Björck, C., Björk, T., Clinton, D., Sohlberg, S. ve Norring, C. (2008). Self‐image and treatment drop‐out in eating disorders. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 81(1), 95- 104.

Bryant, R. A., Moulds, M. L., Mastrodomenico, J., Hopwood, S., Felming- ham, K. ve Nixon, traumatic stress disorder?. Clinical Psychologist, 11(1),

R. D. (2007). Who drops out of treatment for post- 13-15.

Clarkin, J. F. ve Levy, K. N. (2003). The influence of client variables on psychotherapy. In Behavior Change (5th ed., pp. 194-226). New York: Wiley & Sons.

M. Lambert (Ed.), Handbook of Psychotherapy and

Davis, S., Hooke, G. R. ve Page, A. C. (2006). Identifying and targeting predictors of drop- Journal of Psychology, 58(1), 48-56.

out from group cognitive behaviour therapy. Australian

DuBrin, J. R., & Zastowny, T. R. (1988). Predicting early attrition from psychotherapy: An analysis of a large private-practice cohort. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 25(3), 393.

Edlund, M. J., Wang, P. S., Berglund, P. A., Katz, S. J., Lin, E. ve Kessler, R. C. (2002). Dropping out of mental health treatment: Patterns and predictors among epidemiological survey respondents in the United States and Ontario. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(5), 845-851.

Egan, G. (2011). Psikolojik danışma becerileri. (Çev. Yüksel, Ö).İstanbul: Kaknüs

Egan, J. (2005). Dropout and related factors in therapy. The Irish Psycho- logist,32 (2), 27 30.

Engin, E. ve Savaşan, A. (2012). Alkol bağımlılarının psikoterapi süreçlerini etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing/Psikiyatri Hemsireliği Dergisi,3(2), 75-79.

Erkan, S., Özbay, Y., Cihangir-Çankaya, Z. ve Terzi, Ş. (2012). Üniversite öğrencilerinin yaşadıkları lükleri. Eğitim ve Bilim, 37, (164), 95-107.

problemler ve psikolojik yardım arama gönül

Fassino, S., Pierò, A., Tomba, E. ve Abbate-Daga, G. (2009). Factors asso- ciated with dropout from treatment for eating disorders: A comprehensive literature review. BMC psychiatry, 9(1), 67-76.

Garfield, S. L. (1963). A note on patients’ reasons for terminating The- rapy. Psychological Reports, 13(1), 38-38.

Hackney, H., Cormier, L. S., (2008). (Çev. Ergene, T., & Sevim, S. A.) Psi- kolojik danışma ilke ve teknikleri: Psikolojik yardım süreci el kitabı. Mentis.

Hoffman, J. J. (1985). Client factors related to premature termination of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 22(1), 83.

Johansson, H. ve Eklund, M. (2006). Helping alliance and early dropout from psychiatric out- patient care. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epide- miology,41(2), 140-147.

Kelleci, M., Doğan, S., Ata, E. E., Avcı, D., Sabancıoğulları, S., Başeğmez, F. ve İşkey, M. psikotrop ilaç kullanma hakkında telefonla izlem. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 2(3), 128-135.

düşünceleri ve taburculuk sonrası

Knox, S., Adrians, N., Everson, E., Hess, S., Hill, C., & Crook-Lyon, R. (2011). Clients’ perspectives on therapy termination. Psychotherapy Re- search, 21(2), 154-167.

Lerner, Y., & Levinson, D. (2012). Dropout from outpatient mental health care: results from the Israel National Health Survey. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 47(6), 949-955.

Martin, E. S., & Schurtman, R. (1985). Termination anxiety as it affects the therapist. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 22(1), 92.

Maslach, C. (1978). The client role in staff burn‐out. Journal of social issues,34(4), 111-124.

McKellar, J., Kelly, J., Harris, A. ve Moos, R. (2006). Pretreatment and during treatment risk factors for use disorders. Addictive behaviors, 31(3), 450-460.

dropout among patients with substance

Mennicke, S. A., Lent, R. W. & Burgoyne, K. L. (1988), Premature Termi- nation from University Counseling Centers: A Review. Journal of Counseling & Development, 66: 458–465. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1988.tb00788.x

Meriç, M. ve Oflaz, F. (2010). Treatment related thoughts based on health belief model and medication nonadherence in patients who prescribed anxi- olytics and antidepressants. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 9(5), 441-452.

Molinari, E., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., Lozza, E., & Bosio, C. A. (2012). A new approach for psychological consultation: the psychologist at the chemist’s. BMC public health, 12(1), 501.

Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Joyce, A. S., & Piper, W. E. (2005). Strategies for redu- cing patient-initiated premature termination of psychotherapy. Harvard review of psychiatry, 13(2), 57-70.

Özer, Ö & Altınok, A. (2015). Predicting Factors of Drop Out Counseling Process in University Psychological Counseling and Guidance Center. Journal of Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research, 4(1), 18-25.

Pekarik, G. (1983). Improvement in clients who have given different reasons for dropping out of treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39(6), 909-913.

Pekarik, G. (1985a). Coping with dropouts. Professional Psychology: Re- search and Practice, 16(1), 114.

Pekarik, G. (1985b). The effects of employing different termination classifi- cation criteria in dropout research. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 22(1), 86.

Pekarik, G. (1992). Relationship of clients’ reasons for dropping out of treat- ment to outcome and satisfaction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(1), 91-98.

Renk, K., & Dinger, T.M. (2002). Reasons for therapy termination in a university psychology clinic. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1173_1181.

Sledge, W. H., Moras, K., Hartley, D., & Levine, M. (1990). D mopping. Am J Psychiatry, 147(10), 1341-1347.

Surgenor, L. J., Maguire, S. ve Beumont, P. J. (2004). Drop‐out from inpa- tient treatment for at point of admission?. European Eating Disorders Review, 12(2), 94-100. anorexia

nervosa: can risk factors be identified

Türküm, A. S., Kızıltaş, A., ve Sarıyer, A. (2004). Anadolu Üniversitesi Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Merkezi’nin hedef kitlesinin psikolojik ihtiyaçlarına ilişkin ön çalışma. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 3(21), 15-27.

Tweed, A. E., & Salter, D. P. (2000). A conflict of responsibilities: A gro- unded theory study of clinical psychologists’ experiences of client non‐atten- dance within the British National Health Service. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73(4), 465-481.

Ünal, S., Çakıl, G. ve Elyas, Z. (2006). Taburculuk sonrası tedaviye gelmeyen psikotik hastaların özellikleri. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 7, 69-75.

Vandereycken, W., & Devidt, K. (2010). Dropping out from a specialized inpatient treatment for eating disorders: the perception of patients and staff. Eating disorders, 18(2), 140-147.

Werner-Wilson, R. J., & Winter, A. (2010). What factors influence therapy drop out?. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(4), 375-382.

Westmacott, R., Hunsley, J., Best, M., Rumstein-McKean, O., & Schindler, D. (2010). Client and therapist views of contextual factors related to termination from psychotherapy: A comparison between unilateral and mutual terminators. Psychotherapy Research, 20(4), 423-435.

Wierzbicki, M. ve Pekarik, G. (1993). A meta-analysis of psychotherapy dropout. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24(2), 190-195.

Yeomans, F. E., Gutfreund, J., Selzer, M. A., Clarkin, J. F., Hull, J. W. ve Smith, T. E. (1994). Factors related to drop-outs by borderline patients: Treat- ment contract and therapeutic alliance. The Journal of psychotherapy practice and research, 3(1), 16-24.

Zuroff, D. C., Koestner, R., Moskowitz, D. S., McBride, C., Marshall, M., & Bagby, M. R. (2007). Autonomous motivation for therapy: A new common factor in brief treatments for depression. Psychotherapy Research, 17(2), 137-147.