Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Bu çalışma, yabancı dil Fransızca sınıfında, dilbilgisi öğretimi/öğrenimi konusunu incelemek ve konuyla ilgili olarak, hem öğrenenlere hem de öğretenlere benimsenecek yaklaşım, kullanılacak ders kitabı ve etkinlik türleri, anadilin rolü gibi konularda öneriler sunmak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Çalışmada, öncelikle, yabancı dil Fransızca sınıfında dilbilgisinin işlenişinde kullanılan yöntemlere değinilmiş (etken/edilgen, açıktan/örtük, tümevarımcı/tümdengelimci, bağlam içi/bağlam dışı), daha sonra, geleneksel yöntemden başlayarak, başlıca yabancı dil öğretim yöntemlerinde dilbilgisi öğretimi/öğreniminin gelişimi üzerinde durulmuştur. Ayrıca, yabancı dil Fransızcada yeterli düzeyde bir dilbilgisi edinimi için, Diller İçin Avrupa Ortak Başvuru Metninde (AOBM) benimsenen eylem odaklı yaklaşımın yabancı dil Fransızca dilbilgisinin öğretimi/öğrenimine bakış açısı ile günümüzdeki uygulamalar arasında bir sentez yapılmaya çalışılmıştır. Aktif, örtük, tümevarımcı, bağlam içine yerleştirilmiş, bir dilbilgisi öğretimi ve öğreniminin yeterli bir dilsel yeti edinimine büyük katkı sağlayacağı sonucuna varılmıştır.
This study was conducted to investigate the subject of teaching and learning of grammar in French -as a foreign language-classes, and to present suggestions both for the learners and the instructors in the field of the approach to adopt, the course books and types of activities that will be used, the state of the mother tongue. In this study, first of all, grammar teaching techniques applied in grammar teaching in foreign language classes (active/passive, in context/out of context, deductive/inductive, explicit/implicit) were mentioned. In the following part of the study, starting from traditional method, the point of views of language teaching methods on grammar teaching/learning were handled. In addition, the approach proposed in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) for the teaching and learning of grammar of the target languages and the present grammar teaching practice in Turkey have been analyzed. It has been concluded that an active, implicit, inductive, contextualized teaching and learning of grammar would contribute to the acquisition of a better linguistic competence. Purpose and Significance: Language teaching, since 1980s, has showed a considerable development especially thanks to the studies on new approaches in language teaching, kind of activities offered to the learner, the role of the learner and the instructor, the importance which should be given to the communicative and linguistic components, and the problems encountered during language learning. However, no certain answers have been found to the questions whether it is essential to teach grammar in foreign language classes, if yes, how it should be taught, and how much time to spend on it. In our country, among the foreign languages, French, especially French grammar constitutes difficulties because of many rules and exceptions, irregularities in conjugation, kind discrimination which is present neither in English nor in Turkish. When considered in terms of the instructors, grammar teaching in language classes brings many questions and problems for them as well: choosing the course books and resource books, determining the content of the lesson, the amount of time to devote to grammar, the approach to adopt, the state of the mother tongue, Turkish, of the first foreign language, English and of the other acquired languages. This study prepared in the light of these needs and deficiencies was conducted to answer the question how grammar teaching has been done so far in French-as a foreign language- class, and how it should be done. Methods: In this study, first of all, active/passive, in context/ out of context, deductive/inductive, explicit/implicit grammar teaching techniques applied in grammar teaching in foreign language classrooms were mentioned. In the following part of the study, starting from traditional method, the point of views of language teaching methods on grammar teaching/learning were handled: while the traditional method, which doesn't aim at making the learners acquire a complete communicative competence, adopts an deductive and analytic approach in grammar teaching/learning, direct method prohibits translation, use of mother tongue and appeal to the dictionary, and it supports the inductive and implicit grammar teaching. Audio-lingual method, which gives more importance to syntax than to morphology, just like direct method, takes a stand for linguistic competence to be acquired through inductive and implicit method. On the other hand, communicative method makes the difference between linguistic and communicative competences quite well. According to this method, language use is to know using proper language functions to realize communication functions not to form grammatically accurate sentences. Finally, according to the Action Based Method, prepared by European Council and explained in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and also adopted, that the student develops his/her linguistic competence is an inseparable and indispensible component of language learning. Since the language is composed of form and meaning, the learner should acquire both of them but from meaning to form and through inductive method. Lesson contents should be prepared from simple to complex, in context and considering the learner's mother language acquisition process. Results: In the "Results" part of the study, suggestions were presented both for the learners and the instructors. "How should grammar teaching be in French -as foreign language-classes? It can be answered in that way: a grammar teaching and learning which is implicit and inductive, that's, not like in the very traditional way through rules to examples but through examples to rules, not only sentence grammar but grammar inserted in context. Since prototype grammar books designed for foreigners are on the sentence level and they cannot meet the needs of students having different languages, books presenting not only form and structure features of French but also of Turkish, and books prepared considering the problems that Turkish learners encounters a lot, would be beneficial both for the learners and the instructors. Activities presented in the course books, beside a good grammar mother tongue language make it compulsory for the instructors to deal with problems related to grammar teaching/learning in foreign language classes, and to have the pedagogical formation on a level to analyze and synthesize two languages even three languages (Turkish, English and French). Moreover, to meet the changing conditions and needs today, it has become a necessity to set up multilingual departments at universities.