Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Bu çalışmada dikkat stratejileri kapsamında yer alan ve dikkati istenilen bölüme toplamaya yardımcı olan çeşitli uyarıcı işaretler kullanılarak, öğrencilerin piyano performanslarındaki değişme gözlenmiştir. Çalışmada birinci sınıf öğrencilerinden oluşan altı kişilik bir grupla deneme yapılmıştır. Piyano dersini kendi döneminde alan ve denklik testi yolu ile becerisel anlamda eşdeğer oldukları belirlenen altı öğrenci ile araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen eser çalışılmıştır. Öğrenciler 3 kişi deney, 3 kişi kontrol grubu olmak üzere iki gruba ayrılmıştır. Deney grubu ile uyarıcı işaretlerin kullanıldığı nota kullanılarak çalışılmış, diğer grupla uyarıcı işaretlerin kullanılmadığı bir çalışma izlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin denklik testi ve uygulama performansları geliştirilen ölçek yardımıyla izlenmiş ve puanlanmıştır. Çalışmada uyarıcı işaretler ayrıca farklı bir öğrenci ile farklı bir eser üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Birlikte çalışılan altı öğrenciden farklı tutularak, öğrencinin bir hafta çalıştığı diğer bir eser üzerinde deneme yapılmıştır. Yapılan uygulama sonrasında elde edilen verilere yönelik istatistik ölçümler ve sonuçlara yönelik değerlendirmeler yapılmaya çalışılmıştır.
Introduction: Attention is the first point in learning. Attention and perception are required in order to send stimulus received by sense organs to short-term memory to process them after they are recognized in sensory recording. Information selection begins with the reaction to the stimuli; levels of attention and perception determine the reaction. Various methods such as verbal, material-based or signs on note may be used in order to focus students' attention on important parts. Students may focus their attention on challenging parts or some transition parts of their piano pieces by marking them with various methods and make correct playing a practice by forming a habit during studies. Method: In this study, first of all literature on piano education and attention strategies has been reviewed. At the end of the review, sample piece for the planned study has been prepared by the researcher. Sample piece formed by reviewing pieces for first grade students of bachelor level in piano education has included some demanding factors such as finger numbers, clef change and tone change. Prepared piece has been performed and assessed by six students selected among Black Sea Technical University Fatih Education Faculty Department of Music Education first grade students that form the control and experimental group. Experimental Practice: At first, an equivalence test has been performed on experimental and control group students on different times in order to determine whether their playing skills are on the same level. In this first practice, students have been evaluated based on their single performance in equivalence test, study number 45 of book Czerny Opus 599 that has not been played and is similar to sample piece in some ways has been used. During practice with the students, the piece has been played four times by experimental and control group students, first one being the sight-reading and last one final play. These four performances of students have been recorded except for first sigh-reading. In assessment process, performances of the students have been combined as first play and final play. In the last three performances recorded; the first one has been tabulated and assessed as first play, and second and third ones as final play. Control group study has been conducted first and sample piece has been played by the students without any interference and recorded. In these practices which took 20-25 minutes on average for each, control group students played the piece for four times. In experimental group study process, in line with the purpose of the study, parts of the sample piece that require special attention have been underlined with markers. 3 performances of 4 performances demonstrated by experimental group have been recorded and then scored with the help of scale and abovementioned combining method. Practices of experimental group also took 20-25 minutes on average for each as in control group. Another study apart from control and experimental group students has been conducted in order to determine whether signal signs help in sight-reading process. In this study, verification on whether this practice applies only to chosen pieces or to normal conditions as well was carried out, and a piece from piano literature has been chosen. A piece that has been played within the piano program for almost a week has been studied with a student apart from the students chosen for the conducted study. Findings: In control group practice which has not used signal signs for the purpose of the study, students demonstrated significant loss of success on attention demanding parts. On other parts of the scale, students have made acceptable mistakes due to first play and number of repeats. It is understood that experimental group students have better scores both in first play and final play stages compared to control group when score results are reviewed. In stages such as tone change, clef change and staccato playing, there has been a practiced based significant difference. In first playing process distribution levels have been close to each other due to losses stemming from sight-reading; levels have differed partially in final playing process. Conclusion: In the study, performances of 7 participant students have demonstrated that signal sings may have a significant contribution in focusing the attention. In playing the selected pieces during practice process, differences took place in a positive way and positive tendency took place in strategy groups. Control group has demonstrated a study-based normal progress in both stages, while experimental group students demonstrated a significant progress based on the practice. In both first play and final play processes, a significant difference has been observed between the groups. As a result of the study, experimental group has been more successful in comparison to control group as expected.