Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Bu araştırmanın amacı, üniversite öğrencilerine yönelik arkadaş baskısı belirleme ölçeği geliştirilerek, ölçeğin geçerlik-güvenirlik analizleri çerçevesinde kullanılabilirliğini ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, Rize Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi ve Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Fatih Eğitim Fakültesinde, sınıf öğretmenliği ve rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık bölümlerinde öğrenim görmekte olan 450 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Ölçek maddelerinin oluşturulmasında, ilk olarak on iki öğrenciyle, kendilerinin maruz kaldığı arkadaş baskıları konusunda odak grup görüşmesi yapılmıştır. Görüşmenin analizinden elde edilen veriler ölçek maddelerinin oluşturulmasında kullanılmıştır. Ölçek maddeleri kapsam geçerliğini sağlaması bakımından uzman görüşüne sunulmuştur. Ölçeğin madde analizi konusunda, madde toplam korelasyonlarına ve madde ayırt ediciliğine bakılmıştır. Ayrıca yapı geçerliği için açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve iç tutarlık belirleme çalışmaları yürütülmüştür. Ölçeğin iç tutarlılık katsayısı; α=0,894 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Analizler sonucunda, Arkadaş Baskısını Belirleme Ölçeği'nin üniversite öğrencilerinin maruz kaldıkları arkadaş baskısı düzeylerini belirlemede geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek olduğuna karar verilmiştir.
Human that has psycho-socio-cultural identity is invaded in an insensitive interaction with society in which he lives. The interaction continues from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. One of the main factors of the interaction is to have friends and to exist in social environment. The person constantly leagues together new friends, influences them, and is impressed by them during both childhood period and adolescence and adulthood period. However, the friend relationships that one have throughout his life, can create some problems from time to time. At this point, it is seen that the main parts of the national studies related to the subject have been commonly carried out so as to analyze the peer relations of the students at primary or secondary school. In this sense, the starting point of this study consists of the problems that students face in their university peer- groups. Therefore analyzing this problem necessitates developing a new data gathering tool that enables descriptive survey. By doing so, it is through that this scale will be used by researchers in order to put forward the factors related to the friend pressure levels of students and to determine the factors related to the friend pressure levels of the students. By developing a peer pressure scale for university students, the aim of the study is to show the usability of the scale within the scope of validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 450 university students training at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University. The study group consist of 188 men (42%) and 262 girl (58%). In the scale development process, firstly, twelve students selected from different classes and departments on Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University. Then, focus group discussions were interviewed. For using discussions, a semi-structured interview form was developed. Focused group is shared ideas together. Qualitative data which were collected discussions saved and analyzed with method of content analysis. At the end of analysis, an outline form consisting of friend pressure determines scale via student's expressions about friends pressure. Outline form is brought out and revised. Finally 35 items are determined. These items are examined by 5 experts from academic field and problematic, inadequate and out of scope questions are removed from the final form. At the end 11 questions remained and 24 items- the friend pressure determining scale is created. In addition, scale is examined for suitability of Turkish language. The item levels of five-point, Likert type scale, are determined as 1. Never, 2. Rarely, 3.Sometimes, 4.Often, 5.Always. For each item of the scale, item-total correlations are examined. After analysis, it is seen that item-total correlation coefficients of the scale changes between 0.608 and 0.322. In order to demonstrate construction validity of the scale factor analysis is conducted. Accordingly, KMO value 0.906 and Barlett test value 3397,158 (p=0,000 level of significance) were calculated. After the determining of suitability of factor analysis, basic components (exploratory) factor analysis is applied. It is seen that the factor analysis, the common factor variance of the items is between 0,413-0,696 and the items are located under six sub factor which eigenvalues greater than one. Also, it is seen that the eigenvalues of factors are 7.262, 1.731, 1.322, 1.188, 1.066, 1.023 and first factor describes 30,258% of the total variance. According to these results, it is concluded that the scale has a single factor. Therefore, analysis is repeated according to single factor. After analysis, it is seen that values of load factor changes between 0.365 and 0.659. For determining single factor structure, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is conducted. In the last stage, internal consistency is examined and separated into two equivalent groups. According to results, it is seen that alpha coefficient of first group is 0,831 and the second group is 0,834. In the summary, the following conclusions are reached about the scale. In reliability analysis, internal consistency coefficients are obtained with more than one method and results are supported by each other. As a result of expert opinion, content validity of the scale is provided. As a result of item analysis, items coefficients are sufficient. Also, the validity of the structure of scale is analyzed and factor loadings are adequate and the internal consistency is generally good level. Finally, it is revealed that the scale has a high value of reliability and validity. Also it is thought that the scale should use teachers or researchers who work in the field of peer pressure. It is recommended that the scale would translate different languages for other researches. In addition, it is recommended that researchers who want to develop a scale can follow this research's step.