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The present study examines the effect of peer collaboration, teaching children arithmetic in the beginning of 7th grade, age 13 years. Peer collaboration groups are compared to two different structured teaching methods, traditional and independent teaching. Progress made by these students are related to measures of their arithmetic ability, calculation and quantitative concept, as well as their self-regulated learning skills in mathematics, characterised as internal and instrumental motivation, self-concept and anxiety. The results will be discussed with reference to Piaget´s theory of the relation between social interaction and cognitive development. This study has a split-plot factorial design with time as within-subject and type of intervention as a between-subject factor. Students’ progress in quantitative concepts is significantly better if teachers teach traditionally or with peer collaboration. The results show that there are no significant differences between teaching methods when assessing arithmetic in total and calculation. Peer collaboration is more effective than traditional and independent work for students’ internal motivation. Traditional work and peer collaboration are more effective than independent work for students’ self-concept