SAHRA ALTI AFRİKA ÜLKELERİNDEN TÜRKİYE’YE İŞ GÖÇÜ

Sahra altı Afrika ülkelerinden gelen göçmenler İstanbul’da en çok seyyar satıcı olarak görünürlük kazandı. Türkiye’nin ihracat faaliyetleri ile olan yakın ilişkileri ya da kendi aralarında yarattıkları sosyal ve kültürel kurumlar dışardan daha az biliniyor. Göç hareketinin altında iki büyük eşzamanlı gelişme yatıyor: Bir yandan Türkiye’nin Afrika ülkelerine açılması, devletin siyasi ve ticari girişimleri yanında özel yatırımlar, spor takımları, eğitim kurumları ve üniversite öğrencileri yoluyla kurulan bağlar, öte yandan Sahra altı ülkelerin son yıllarda gösterdiği iktisadi canlanma. Bu yazı bir yıllık alan araştırmasına dayanarak İstanbul’daki batı ve orta Afrikalı göçmenlerin gündelik yaşamlarını, aralarındaki hem ulusal köken ve yaşam tarzı hem de gelir seviyesi bakımından farklılıkları betimliyor, ücretli işçi, serbest meslek veya işletme sahipliği gibi uğraşılarını sıralıyor. Son bir bölüm göçün ülke ekonomisine ve toplumsal gerçeğine katkısını değerlendiriyor.

Sahra altı Afrika ülkelerinden Türkiye’ye iş göçü

The population at large of İstanbul takes notice of the presence of large numbers of sub-Saharan immigrants from the ubiquity of African street vendors. The significant role that these immigrants assume in export and shipping activities, or the social and cultural activities in which they engage among themselves are much less widely known. Two developments underwrite this immigration movement. On the one hand Turkey’s opening to sub-Saharan Africa, its closer political and economic ties and the relations established through private investments, sport teams, schools, and university students; on the other, rising African growth rates, which stimulate both demand for imports and the desire for outmigration. This article is based on a yearlong fieldwork among West and Central African immigrants in İstanbul. It describes their social life and the range of economic positions they occupy, from daily wage work, to the provision of independent services and crafts, to business ownership. The article ends with a section assessing the economic and social contributions of the immigrants.

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