İSLAM ÜLKELERİNDE EKONOMİK ÖZGÜRLÜĞÜN GİRİŞİMCİLİK ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ

Piyasa ekonomisi odaklı kurum ve politikalar olarak ifade edilen ekonomik özgürlük, girişimcilik aktivitelerinin en önemli belirleyicilerinden biridir. Çünkü ekonomik özgürlük seviyesindeki artışlar, girişimcilik eylemini engelleyen işlem maliyetlerinin azalmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın amacı 1995-2019 yıllarına ait verileri kullanarak İslam ülkelerinde ekonomik özgürlüğün girişimcilik aktiviteleri üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Çalışmada girişimciliğin ölçütü olarak serbest çalışma oranı; girişimciliğin belirleyicileri olarak kişi başına GSYH, para arzı, ithalat ve enflasyon; ekonomik özgürlüğün ölçütü olarak Miras Vakfı tarafından sunulan ekonomik özgürlük endeksi ve bu endeksin ölçümünde kullanılan 12 alt bileşenden 9 tanesi (mülkiyet hakları, hükümetin dürüstlüğü, devlet harcamaları, vergi yükü, iş özgürlüğü, parasal özgürlük, ticaret özgürlüğü, yatırım özgürlüğü ve finansal özgürlük) kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre ekonomik özgürlük ile alt bileşenlerinden mülkiyet hakları, hükümetin dürüstlüğü, devlet harcamaları, parasal özgürlük, yatırım özgürlüğü ve finansal özgürlüğün girişimciliği pozitif; vergi yükü ve ticaret özgürlüğünün ise negatif etkilediği bulunmuştur.

THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ISLAMIC COUNTRIES

The level of economic freedom which is expressed as institutions and policies based on market economy is one of the most significant indicators of entrepreneurial activities since the increase in economic freedom has caused a decrease in transaction costs preventing the entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of economic freedom on entrepreneurship in Islamic countries by using the data belonging to years between 1995 and 2019. In the study, self-employment rate has been used as entrepreneurial criterion; gross domestic product per capita, money supply, import and inflation have been used as the indicators of the entrepreneurship; economic freedom index presented by The Heritage Foundation and its 9 subcomponents out of 12 (property rights, government integrity, government spending, tax burden, business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, investment freedom and financial freedom) have been used as the economic freedom criterion. According to the findings of this study, entrepreneurship has been affected positively by economic freedom and property rights, government integrity, government spending, monetary freedom, investment freedom and financial freedom and negatively by tax burden and trade freedom.

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