Öz Starting with the industrial revolution in the United Kingdom in the 18th century, the textile and clothing (TC) sector has shown some streamlined stages and characteristics that seem to reoccur even today in a similar sequence. The TC industry develops capitalizing on the adoption of its industrial technology, creates employment for relatively low skilled labor converting them into industrial workers. At this stage it also triggers the development of other manufacturing industries through positive technical, labor or managerial spillovers. As the TC manufacturing technology is further adopted by the businesses, the sector further grows, enhances productivity and becomes part of an international supply chain. Faced with international competition, the TC sector reaches a bifurcation point when it mostly diminishes or it is transformed into a higher value-added sector through fashion, branding or technical textiles. As such, the TC industry proclaims Kaldor’s growth laws. The idea is supported by several timebound country experiences which are located on the TC Cycle. The suggested streamlined stages and characteristics of the TC sector provides some valuable development policy recommendations for some African countries that are striving to industrialize as well as for countries that reached to bifurcation point on the TC Cycle, such as Turkey.


AHMED, N. (2009). Sustaining Ready-made Garment Exports from Bangladesh. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 39(4): 597–618.

ALAM, S., NATSUDA, K. (2013). The Competitive Factors of the Bangladeshi Garment Industry in the Post-MFA Era. Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University WP, RWP-13003.

BARGAWI, O. (2005). Cambodia’s Garment Industry – Origins and Future Prospect. ESAU (Economic and Statistics Analysis Unit) Working Paper, No 13.

BARROW, C. (2000). Economic Impacts of the Textiles and Apparel Industries in Massachusetts. Report for the Donahue Institute of Governmental Affairs.

BGMEA (Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association) Trade Information (Accessed On: 13.04.2015)

BRITISH FASHION COUNCIL (2010). The Value of the UK Fashion Industry. London.

BRITISH FASHION COUNCIL (2015). The Economic Value of the UK’s Fashion Industry in 2015. London.

CAMERON, R. AND NEAL, L. (2003). A Concise Economic History of the World: From Paleolithic Times to the Present. 4th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

CIRFS (European Man Made Fibres Association) (2011). World Market for Technical Textiles to 2017. International Newsletters Ltd.

CHAUDHURI, K.N. (1974). The Structure of Indian Textile Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Indian Economic and Social History Review, 11 (2-3): 127-82.

CHI, T. (2010). An Empirical Study of Trade Competitiveness in the U.S. Technical Textile Industry. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management, 6(4): 1-19.

CHIU, C.C.H. (2007). Workplace Practices in Hong Kong-Invested Garment Factories in Cambodia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 37(4): 431-448.

CLIFFORD, S. (2013). U.S. Textile Plants Return, with Floors Largely Empty of People. New York Times, 19 September 2013. (Accessed On: 15.05.2015)

CONRAD, J.L. (1995). Drive that Branch: Samuel Slater, the Power Loom, and the Writing of America’s Textile History. Technology and Culture, 36(1): 1-28.

DANGERFIELD, G. (1965). The Awakening of American Nationalism: 1815-1828. New York: Harper & Row.

DATTEL, G. (2009). Cotton and Race in the Making of America: the Human Costs of Economic Power. Plymouth, UK: Ivan R. Dee.

DUNN, J. (2008). The Ready-made Garment Industry in Bangladesh: an Update. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

FARRELL, R. (2008). Japanese Investment in the World Economy: a Study of Strategic Themes in the Intrenationalisation of Japanese Industry. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

FRANCKS, P. (2011). Kimono Fashion: the Consumer and the Growth of the Textile Industry in Pre-war Japan. In: Francks P., Hunter J., Editors. The Historical Consumer: Consumption and Everyday Life in Japan, 1850-2000. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

GARRATY, J.A. (1997). The American Nation: a History of the United States. 9th Edition. Boston: Addison Wesley.

GEREFFI, G. (2000). The Transformation of the North American Apparel Industry: is NAFTA a Curse or Blessing? Integration and Trade, 4(11): 47-95.

HARLEY, C.K. (1998). Cotton Textile Prices and the Industrial Revolution. Economic History Review, 51(1): 49-83.

HAWKE, D. F. (1998). Nuts and Bolts of the Past: a History of American Technology, 1776-1860. New York: Harper & Row.

ITKIB (2012). Türkiye’nin Teknik Tekstil Ticareti Üzerine Güncel Bilgiler. Istanbul: ITKIB Genel Sekreterliği, AR & GE ve Mevzuat Şubesi.

ITKIB (2015). Teknik Tekstil Sektörüne İlişkin Güncel Bilgiler. Istanbul: ITKIB Tekstil, Deri ve Halı Şubesi.

KALDOR, N. (1961). Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth. In: Lutz F.A., Hague D, Editors. The Theory of Capital. London: McMillan.

KALDOR, N. (1966). Causes of Slow Rate of Economic Growth of the United Kingdom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

KALDOR, N. (1967). Strategic Factors in Economic Development. Ithaca: New York State School of Industrial and Labour Relations, Cornell University.

McNAMARA, D.L. (1995). Textiles and Industrial Transition in Japan. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

MESSE FRANKFURT (2011). Technical textiles – a Market with Enormous Potential. (Accessed On: 17.05.2015)

MEYER, D. (2003). The Roots of American Industrialization. Balltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

MITTELHAUSER, M. (1997). Employment Trends in Textiles and Apparel, 1973-2005. Monthly Labor Review, August 1997: 24-35.

MUKUND, K. (1992). Indian Textile Industry in 17th and 18th Centuries: Structure, Organisation and Responses. Economic and Political Weekly, 27(38): 2057-65.

MURRAY, L. (1995). Unraveling Employment Trends in Textiles and Apparel. Monthly Labor Review, August 1995: 62-71.

NATSUDA, K., GOTO, K., THOBURN, J. (2010). Challenges to the Cambodian Garment Industry in the Global Garment Value Chain. European Journal of Development Research, 22(4): 469–93.

NORTH JERSEYS INTERNET MAGAZINE. Silk City – Paterson, New Jersey. Industrial Revolution in North Jersey. (Accessed On: 21.03.2015)

OHKAWA, K. (1979). Production Structure. In: Ohkawa K., Shinohara M. Editors. Patterns of Japanese Economic Development: a Quantitative Appraisal. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

OSD (Otomobil Sanayicileri Derneği) (2018). Otomotiv Sanayi Dış Ticaret Raporu. 1. Çeyrek 2018

PGLOBAL (2014). Tekstil ve Hazır Giyim Sektörü ve Türk Ekonomisindeki Yeri. Istanbul: Turkish Textile Employers’ Association.

PREYER, N.W. (1959). Southern Support of the Tariff of 1816 – a Reappraisal. The Journal of Southern History, 25(3): 306-22.

QUDDUS, M., RASHID S. (2000). Entrepreneurs and Economic Development: the Remarkable Story of Garment Exports from Bangladesh. Dhaka: The University Press Limited.

ROSE, M. (1991). International Competition and Strategic Response in the Textile Industries since 1870, Business History, 32(4): 1-8.

SAXONHOUSE, G. (1974). A Tale of Japanese Technological Diffusion in the Meiji period. The Journal of Economic History, 34(1): 149-165.

SMITH, T.C. AND VUCINICH W.S. (1955). Political Change and Industrial Development in Japan: Government Enterprise 1868-1880. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

SOK, H., CHEA H., SIK B. (2001). Cambodia’s Annual Economic Review – 2001. Phnom Penh: Cambodia Development Resource Institute.

STARITZ, C. (2010). Making the Cut? Low-Income Countries and the Global Clothing Value Chain in a Post-Quota and Post-Crisis. Washington DC: World Bank.

SUH, H.O.M.W. (2003). What is Happening to the US Textile Industry? Reflections on NAFTA and US Corporate Strategies. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 7(2), 119-37.

TANIGUCHI, F. (1991). The Economic Outlook for Textiles and Clothing in the 1990s: Developments in the Textile and Clothing Industry in Japan. Journal of the Textile Institute, 82(2), 195-202.

TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute) Foreign Trade Statistics. (Accessed On: 09.03.2019)

USDA (2013). Bangladesh Cotton and Products Annual. United States Department of Agriculture: Washington DC.

WB (World Bank) (2005). End of MFA Quotas: Key Issues and Strategic Option for Bangladesh Garment Industry. World Bank: Washington, DC.

WB (2019). World Development Indicators. (Accessed On: 01.04.2019)

WTO (World Trade Organization) (2012, 2014, 2018). International Trade Statistics. Geneva.