Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Tarihsel zaman algısı, bireylerin gelişim süreçleri içinde yapılanmaktadır. Bireyin zaman algısı onun tarihe bakışını ve yorumlamasını doğrudan etkilemektedir. Öğretmen adaylarının özellikle de tarih derslerini genel bir bakış açısıyla bütün olarak ele alan ve anlatan sınıf öğretmenlerinin, tarihsel zaman algılarının bilinmesi önemlidir. Bu araştırmada eğitim fakültesi birinci sınıfta okuyan öğretmen adaylarının tarihsel zaman algıları, onlara yaptırılan tarih şeritleri üzerinden bir okuma ile incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla, Gaziantep Üniversitesi İlköğretim Sınıf öğretmenliği 1. sınıf öğrencilerinden (54 kişi) bir çalışma grubu oluşturulmuştur. Bu gruptan her bir öğrenciye; tarihte önemli buldukları olayları içeren bir zaman şeridi yapmaları istenmiştir. Belli bir süre sonunda tarih şeritlerini yapan öğrencilere bireysel olarak konu hakkında açık uçlu sorulardan oluşan bir de anket uygulanmıştır. Çalışma grubunun ürünleri olan tarih şeritleri, uygulanan anketle paralel bir okuma ile analiz edilmiş ve değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgulara göre; modernizmin lineer-metrik zaman algısına karşın öğrencilerin tarih şeritlerinde farklı zaman formlarından yararlandıkları görülmüştür. Çizgisel, döngüsel ve inişli-çıkışlı ana formalar yanında ara formları da kullandıkları fark edilmiştir. Öğretmen adaylarının tarihsel süreçleri kendi düşünceleri doğrultusunda ifade etme eğiliminde olmalarından dolayı tarih şeritlerini yaparken farklı yöntem ve ifadeler kullandıkları tespit edilmiştir.
Introduction History investigates the meaningful true events experienced in the past within a historical process. This investigation is carried out within a particular historical period. Therefore, to many historians, historical time or chronology is the backbone of history (Diem, 1982). However, this mental schema or perception does not emerge or takes shape spontaneously (Şimşek, 2006). It is crucial to begin to teach the concept of historical time in the primary school, which means that it requires a fundamental educational planning. The competency of primary teachers who will plan and implement the instruction of the concept is also of high importance for this education. Therefore, in this study, a primary teacher’s perception of historical time was investigated. In this study, first year pre-service teachers’ perceptions of historical time were investigated through the readings of “timelines” prepared by these teacher candidates. Within this framework, answers for the following questions are sought through the timelines students prepared: 1. In what form was the term historical time? 2. Why were these forms chosen? 3. How was their perception of the birth date of Christ? 4. How did they divide history into periods? 5. Which events marked the ending point of an age? 6. What were the points they took into consideration? 7. What kind of images and symbols did they use to narrate events? Methodology This study adopts a descriptive analysis technique. The pre-service primary teachers’ perception of historical time is to be described through the timeline they prepared. The obtained data is analyzed through the method of content analysis. The study group consisted of a cluster of 54 in first year pre-service primary teachers from the University of Gaziantep. The group was made up of 37 women and 17 men. All of the products by students were analyzed. The group was asked to prepare timeline through which they would teach students the historical time within the context of history of civilization. The teacher candidates were also asked to touch on events they thought were important in history when they prepared these timelines. There was no other limitation or direction. The investigators analyzed the timelines developed by each candidate and the forms of time the candidates chose in accordance with the three forms of time (linear, circular and chaotic forms of time). Two investigators compared and discussed the contradictory findings obtained through separate analyses. Then, they tabulated the obtained data after an analytical evaluation.Data, Discussion and Conclusion This study analyzes the candidate teachers’ perception of historical time and their understanding of periodization, division of ages and turning point in history which are important elements for a timeline to be developed. Apart from the three main forms of time (linear metric, circular and chaotic lines), intermediate forms were also developed. As a result of the modern-enlightened education, this case was found interesting. Modern education and historiography imprint on our memory a progressive perception of time itemized along a linear line from primary to university education. Although structuralize criticize that this process is based on Western ideology (Fabian, 1999: 53), it manifests itself as a necessity to meet the vital needs in modern life. However, 37% of the teacher candidates developed their timelines in accordance with linear-metric perception of time, which is an important finding to be regarded as an indication of incompetency in modern life. Another important finding was that the remaining 63% of the group had 10 different intermediate forms of perception of time rather than a single block of this perception. This data is important because it manifests the various time perceptions of each individual despite the formal perception. The variety of images used by the candidate teachers to show time along the timelines was another important datum. It is meaningful that the candidates used analogies of snake, train, stair, pyramid, flower, two arms of the human being, etc. to prepare these timelines for teaching. This case is sort of an objection against the boredom and monotony of the timelines hanging on the walls of classrooms for years. The variety of these analogies can be analyzed as an effort to get rid of the sulky face of history teaching. The higher portion of the candidates used the concept of turning point on the timelines correctly. Moreover, the reason why they placed the concept of turning point in the middle of the timelines can be a result of the standard style of the timelines in schools. Although this was a widely accepted fact, it was not adopted by one fourth of the candidate teachers. This can be associated with the non-comprehensive approach of the candidates in the preparation of the timelines which did not include time from past to present. Actually, only ten of the candidates could reach out the timelines up to the present. The remaining majority ended the course of history either with the Ottoman period, the ancient ages or the French Revolution. This is thought-provoking. Then, such a question comes to one’s mind: Do the majority of the candidates perceive time “as a past disconnected from present?” It is clear that this argument requires a comprehensive and in-depth investigation. Another interesting datum obtained through the analysis of the timelines prepared by students was that more than half of them (55.6%) did not make use of the concept of period (era) on their timelines. However, the first image that comes to one’s mind since primary school is a course of time divided into periods. It is interesting that more than half of the candidate teachers did not divide the history stripes despite such a dominant periodization of time. This is a point that should definitely be questioned. At this point, the question that comes to mind is whether the candidate teachers have an unconscious objection against the approach they have been taught for years or the almost standardized periodization.The data obtained through the analysis of priorities the candidate teachers had when they prepared the timelines also attract attention. It is important that they defined their priorities as sequencing (22), importance (15), information (15), visual quality (9) and contribution (9). However, it is interesting that while the main items of the timeline should have been ages ( first, middle, new and modern), the turning point (0), the beginning of ages (for example, the Middle Ages begin with the migration of tribes), chronology, visuality, and sequency, what were attached primary importance were only the concepts of sequence and visuality. For example, the turning point (B.C-A.D) was expressed by four candidate teachers while chronology was expressed by 6 of them. When the images and symbols used in history stripes produced by the candidate teachers were analyzed, it was seen that the earliest invented items such as money (10), writing (6) and possessions (6) were frequently described. Moreover, the images and symbols of writing, which marks the beginning of historical ages (6), and the conquest of Istanbul, which marks the beginning of modern age (3), were used. However, the events dividing history into periods should have been described through more images and symbols. In conclusion, this study has revealed that various perceptions of historical time exist despite the formal form of historical time taught students for years. This means that the history teaching and the concept of historical time presented within this framework have certain deficits. Therefore, it can be suggested that the concept of historical time and the related concepts taught in the curriculum of social sciences as a learning domain and a basic skill should be incorporated into the curriculum of history courses in high school