Fungal Nail Infections: Spectrum of Aetiologic Agents and Pattern of Lesions

Öz Objective: Worldwide, fungal nail infections have been on the increase, with social, cultural and economic factors contributingto it. Information on the spectrum of fungal nail infection is sparse in Nigeria. This study was carried out toestablish the infection rates, aetiology and clinical types of onychomycosis in Calabar.Methods: Subjects were drawn from manicure and pedicure salons, farming settlements, mechanic workshops anddermatology clinic. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants for demographic data. Nail scrapingsand clippings were obtained from subjects under standard aseptic procedure. Samples were pulverized and subjectedto microscopy and culture. Standard mycological techniques were used to identify and characterize isolates.Results: Out of the 32.7% infection rates in the study, males 33.8%% were more infected than females 32.3% and subjectsaged 41-50 years had the highest rate of infections. Candida species were more prevalent 63.6% than dermatophyticmoulds 36.4%. Trichophyton rubrum was the most prevalent 18.2% dermatophyte. The distribution of pathogenicisolates on fingernails 45.5% and toenails 42.4% was statistically significant (χ2 =7.2, p= 0.03). Disto-lateral subungualonychomycosis (DLSO) 51(50.5%) was the most common type of nail lesion but most of the isolates 14(42.4%) wererecovered from TDO. Conclusion: Onychomycosis affected more adults than adolescents of both sexes in our locality.Candida species are becoming prevalent aetiologic agents of these infections, and their importance should not beoverlooked in the management of patients. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1): 23-27

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