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The purpose of this study is to examine that, after Taiwan implemented a military downsizing program, whether the job stress perceived by retained personnel has a statistically significant influence on their organizational commitment. Recommendations are proposed according to the research findings as advice for high-level managers who make policies amid organizational changes. A quantitative approach was adopted for this study, with questionnaire given out to those selected by convenience sampling within the national defense system, namely cadet officers/corporals at military academies and contract personnel of commands/military bases nationwide. Findings from this research indicate that, except job-transfer experiences, only a part of the demographic qualities significantly affect the retained personnel's job stress and organizational commitment. After scrutinizing "retained personnel's perceived job tress", "the relation between job stress and organizational commitment" and "the influence of job stress on organizational downsizing and organizational commitment", the author of this study discovered the mediating effect of job stress on the relation between organizational downsizing and organizational commitment.