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This study investigated high school students’ understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts - states of matter, melting, evaporation, condensation, boiling, and vapor pressure, in relation to their understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample of six students (four females and two males) enrolled in a second year chemistry course at a midwestern high school in the USA was interviewed about their conceptions of states of matter, melting, evaporation, condensation, boiling, and vapor pressure. Interviewees were also asked to apply these concepts to explain everyday phenomena. Purposeful typical case sampling method was used to identify the students who were interviewed for this study. Evidence from these interviews indicates that multiple representations of the particulate nature of matter by students contribute to their understanding of the aforementioned fundamental concepts.