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This study examined the correlation between commitment to specific treatment orientations and teacher self-efficacy. The participants included 115 teachers working with children with autism. Teachers using one of the two different treatment orientations participated in the study; as oriented towards Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), and those committed to the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication-related Handicapped Children (TEACCH) orientation. The two groups were compared to a group of teachers with commitment to neither of these orientations (who served as a comparison group), in terms of personal and general teaching self-efficacy. The results suggested that teachers who identified themselves with the ABA orientation had a significantly higher personal teaching self-efficacy compared to the TEACCH group, as well as the comparison group. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of general teaching self-efficacy. The limitations of this study, as well as its implications for research and practices followed in working with children with autism, are discussed.