Deneyimsel Ürünler ve Araştırma Ürünleri ile İlgili Çevrimiçi Tüketici Yorumları ve Referans Fiyat Bilgisinin Tüketicilerin Satın Alma Davranışları Üzerindeki Etkisi

İşletmeleri karlı kılmak için işletme yöneticileri pazarlama programlarında pazarlama süreç ve politikalarının bir karmasını kullanmaktadırlar. Pazarlama karması, dört pazarlama unsuru (4P) için stratejik bir araç olmasına rağmen, tüketici davranışlarını dikkate almayan içe odaklı bir yapıda olması ve bu pazarlama karması elemanları arasında etkileşimin olmaması nedeniyle eleştirilmektedir. Bu bağlamda, bu çalışmanın literatürdeki boşluğu doldurmak için yararlı olacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışmada, çok değişkenli kovaryans analiz (MANCOVA), referans fiyatın (var ve yok), ürün tiplerinin (araştırma ve deneyimsel ürünler) ve çevrimiçi tüketici yorumlarının (az ve çok yorum) satın alma niyeti, çevrimiçi yorum sayısı, algılanan inanılırlık, çevrimiçi yorumlara yönelik genel tutum ve fiyat algısı üzerindeki etkilerini araştıran hipotezleri test etmek için kullanılmıştır. Önceki çevrimiçi satın alma deneyimi ve ilgilenim, analizde kovaryans değişkenler olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu çalışmanın sonunda, incelenen gruplar arasında, satın alma niyeti ve yorum sayısı bağlamlarında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur.

The Effects of Online Consumer Reviews and Reference Price Information about Experience and Search Goods on Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviors

To make businesses profitable, a mix of marketing procedures and policies are used by the management of businesses in their marketing programs. In spite the marketing mix is a key strategic combination tool for four marketing elements (4Ps), it is criticized for being internally oriented structure (not considering consumer behavior) and being lack of interaction between each mix element. At this point, it is thought for this study to be useful for filling the gap in the literature. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), was used to test the research hypothesis that investigate the effects of reference price (available vs non-available), product types (search vs experience goods) and online consumer review (high and low reviews) on willingness to buy, number of review, perceived believability, general attitude towards online reviews, and price perception. Prior online purchase experience and involvement were used as covariates in the analysis. At the end of this study, statistically significant differences were found in the context of willingness to buy and number of reviews among the groups examine.

Kaynakça

Aggarwal, P. ve Vaidyanathan, R. (2005). Perceived effectiveness of recommendation agent routines: search vs. experience goods. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 2(1-2), 38-55.

Akhter, S. H. (2009). Niches at the edges: price-value tradeoff, consumer behavior, and marketing strategy. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(2), 136-142.

Alba, J., Lynch, J., Weitz, B., Janiszewski, C., Lutz, R., Sawyer, A., ve Wood, S. (1997). Interactive home shopping: consumer, retailer, and manufacturer incentives to participate in electronic marketplaces. The Journal of Marketing, 61(3), 38-53.

Al-Jeraisy, K. I. A. (2008). Consumer Behaviour, 3. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 338p. Enstitüsü Dergisi 2014 18(1): 441, 460.

Armstrong, G ve Kotler, P. (2007) Marketing An Introduction, (8 th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments, in: H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, Leadership and Men, Carnegie Press, Pittsburgh, PA, 177–190.

Aydın, B. O. (2014). Elektronik agizdan agiza iletişim: tüketici motivasyonlarinin analizi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, (32), 13-25.

Briesch, R. A., Krishnamurthi, L., Mazumdar, T., ve Raj, S.P. (1997). A comparative analysis of reference price models. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(2), 202-214.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2007), Sosyal Bilimler için Veri Analizi El Kitabı, Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.

Campbell, J.D. ve Fairey, P.J. (1989). Informational and normative routes to conformity: the effect of faction size as a function of norm extremity and attention to the stimulus, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(3), 457–468.

Celuch, K., ve Taylor, S. (1999). Involvement with services: An empirical replication and extension of Zaichkowsky's personal involvement inventory. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 12, 109-122.

Cemalcılar, İ. (1999). Pazarlama, kavramlar-kararlar. İstanbul: Beta Basım Dağıtım A.Ş.

Chevalier, J. A. ve Mayzlin, D. (2006). The effect of word of mouth on sales: online book reviews. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(3), 345-354.

Cui, G., Lui, H. K., ve Guo, X. (2012). The effect of online consumer reviews on new product sales. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 17(1), 39-58.

Çokluk, Ö, Şekercioğlu, G. ve Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları. (1. bs), Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Daft, R. L., ve Lengel, R. H. (1984). “Information Richness: A New Approach to Manager Information Processing and Organization Design,” in Research in Organization Behavior, Vol. 6, Staw, Barry, and Cummings, L.L., eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 191–233.

Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., ve Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of price, brand, and store information on buyers' product evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307-319.

Durmaz, Y., ve Yardimcioğlu, M. (2016). Ürün kararları ve stratejileri üzerine teorik bir yaklaşım. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(2), 367-387.

Estelami H. ve Maxwell, S. (2003). Perspectives in Behavioral Pricing. Journal of Business Research, 56(2), 401-403.

Floyd, F. J. ve Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 286-299.

Ford, G. T., Smith, D. B., ve Swasy, J. L. (1990). Consumer skepticism of advertising claims: Testing hypotheses from economics of information. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(4), 433-441.

Franke, G. R., Huhmann, B. A., ve Mothersbaugh, D. L. (2004). Information content and consumer readership of print ads: a comparison of search and experience products. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 20-31.

Gabor, A. ve Granger, C. W. J. (1977). Pricing, principles and practices. Heinemann Educational Publishers.

Gijsbrechts, E. (1993). Prices and pricing research in consumer marketing: Some recent developments. International Journal f Research in Marketing, 10(2), 115-151.

Grewal, D., Marmorstein, H., ve Sharma, A. (1996). Communicating price information through semantic cues: the moderating effects of situation and discount size. Journal of Consumer Research, 23(2), 148-155.

Ha, Y. W. ve Hoch, S. J. (1989). Ambiguity, processing strategy, and advertising-evidence interactions. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 354-360.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., ve Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International.

Hoch, S. J., ve Deighton, J. (1989). Managing what consumers learn from experience. The Journal of Marketing, 1-20.

Hoch, S. J., ve Ha, Y. W. (1986). Consumer learning: Advertising and the ambiguity of product experience. Journal of consumer research, 13(2), 221-233.

Hoffman, D. L., ve Novak, T. P. (1996). Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: Conceptual foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60(3), 50-68.

Hsieh, Y. C., Chiu, H. C., ve Chiang, M. Y. (2005). Maintaining a committed online customer: A study across search-experience-credence products. Journal of Retailing, 81(1), 75-82.

Huang, L., Tan, C. H., Ke, W., ve Wei, K. K. (2013). Comprehension and assessment of product reviews: A review-product congruity proposition. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(3), 311-343.

Huang, P., Lurie, N. H., ve Mitra, S. (2009). Searching for experience on the web: an empirical examination of consumer behavior for search and experience goods. Journal of Marketing, 73(2), 55-69.

Huberty, C. J., ve Olejnik, S. (2006). Applied MANOVA and discriminant analysis.. Hoboken, NJ: Jone Hiley ve Sons.

Kahneman, D. ve Tversky, A. (2013). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. In Handbook of the fundamentals of financial decision making: Part I (99-127).

Kalwani, M. U., Yim, C. K., Rinne, H. J., ve Sugita, Y. (1990). A price expectations model of customer brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(3), 251-262.

Kalyanaram, G. ve Winer, R. S. (1995). Empirical generalizations from reference price research. Marketing science, 14(3_supplement), G161-G169.

Karagöz, Y. ve Kösterelioğlu, İ. (2008). İletişim becerileri değerlendirme ölçeğinin faktör analizi metodu ile geliştirilmesi. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, (21), 81-97.

Klein, L. R. (1998). Evaluating the potential of interactive media through a new lens: Search versus experience goods. Journal of Business Research, 41(3), 195-203.

Kopalle, P. K. ve Lindsey-Mullikin, J. (2003). The impact of external reference price on consumer price expectations. Journal of Retailing, 79(4), 225-236.

Kumandaş, H., ve Kutlu, Ö. (2011). İlköğretim beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin performans görevlerine yönelik tutumlarının akademik başarılarına ve dersleri sevme durumlarına göre incelenmesi. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi, 2(2).

Kwon, O. ve Sung, Y. (2012). Shifting selves and product reviews: How the effects of product reviews vary depending on the self-views and self-regulatory goals of consumers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 17(1), 59-82.

Lee, J., Lee, J. N., ve Shin, H. (2011). The long tail or the short tail: The category-specific impact of eWOM on sales distribution. Decision Support Systems, 51(3), 466-479.

Lichtenstein, D. R., Burton, S., ve Karson, E. J. (1991). The effect of semantic cues on consumer perceptions of reference price ads. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(3), 380-391.

Lien, C. H., Wen, M. J., Huang, L. C., ve Wu, K. L. (2015). Online hotel booking: The effects of brand image, price, trust and value on purchase intentions. Asia Pacific Management Review, 20(4), 210-218.

Lowengart, O. (2002). Reference price conceptualisations: An integrative framework of analysis. Journal of Marketing Management, 18(1-2), 145-171.

Lynch Jr, J. G., Marmorstein, H., ve Weigold, M. F. (1988). Choices from sets including remembered brands: Use of recalled attributes and prior overall evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 169-184.

Lynch Jr, J. G. ve Ariely, D. (2000). Wine online: Search costs affect competition on price, quality, and distribution. Marketing Science, 19(1), 83-103.

Mantel, S. P. ve Kardes, F. R. (1999). The role of direction of comparison, attribute-based processing, and attitude-based processing in consumer preference. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(4), 335-352.

Mcgoldrick, P. J., Betts, E. J. ve Wilson, A. F. (1999). Modelling consumer price cognition: Evidence from discount and superstore sectors. Service Industries Journal, 19(1), 171-193.

Menkveld, B. G. T. (2013). Exploring credibility in electronic word-of-mouth. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Twente).

Mirtagioğlu, H., Yiğit, S., Mendeş, E., ve Mendeş, M. (2017). A Monte Carlo Simulation Study For Comparing Performances Of Some Homogeneity Of Variances Tests. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 12(1), 1-11.

Monroe, K. B. (1973). Buyers' subjective perceptions of price. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(1), 70-80.

Monroe, K. B. (2003) Pricing: Making profitable decisions (3rd ed.). New York:McGraw-Hill.

Mudambi, S. M., ve Schuff, D. (2010). Research note: What makes a helpful online review? A study of customer reviews on Amazon. com. MIS Quarterly, 34, 185-200.

Nelson, P. (1970). Information and consumer behavior. Journal of political economy, 78(2), 311-329.

Nelson, P. (1974). Advertising as information. Journal of Political Economy, 82(4), 729-754.

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric methods, 464-465.

Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS Survival Manual: A Step By Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows Version.

Pan, Y. ve Zhang, J. Q. (2011). Born unequal: a study of the helpfulness of user-generated product reviews. Journal of Retailing, 87(4), 598-612.

Park, D. H., Lee, J., ve Han, I. (2007). The effect of online consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 11(4), 125-148.

Park, D. H. ve Lee, J. (2008). eWOM overload and its effect on consumer behavioral intention depending on consumer involvement. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 7(4), 386-398.

Peterson, R. A., Balasubramanian, S., ve Bronnenberg, B. J. (1997). Exploring the implications of the Internet for consumer marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing science, 25(4), 329-346.

Puccinelli, N. M., Chandrashekaran, R., Grewal, D., ve Suri, R. (2013). Are men seduced by red? The effect of red versus black prices on price perceptions. Journal of Retailing, 89(2), 115-125.

Scheiner, S. M. (2001). Multiple response variables and multi-species interactions. Design and analysis of ecological experiments, 99-133.

Sheffet, M. J. (1983). An experimental investigation of the documentation of advertising claims. Journal of Advertising, 12(1), 19-29.

Smith, S. M. ve Albaum, G. S. (2005). Fundamentals of marketing research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Stauss, B. (1997). Global word of mouth: service bashing on the Internet is a thorny issue. Marketing Management, 6(3), 28-30.

Stigler, G. J. (1961). The economics of information. Journal of Political Economy, 69(3), 213-225.

Sujan, M., Bettman, J. R., ve Sujan, H. (1986). Effects of consumer expectations on information processing in selling encounters. Journal of Marketing Research, 23(4), 346-353.

Tabachnick, B. G. ve Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Allyn ve Bacon/Pearson Education.

Tek, Ö. B. (1999). Pazarlama İlkeleri, Global Yönetimsel Yaklaşım, Türkiye Uygulamaları. İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım A.Ş.

Thaler, R. (1985). Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice. Marketing Science, 4 (3), 199-214.

Thamizhvanan, A. ve Xavier, M. J. (2013). Determinants of customers' online purchase intention: an empirical study in India. Journal of Indian Business Research, 5(1), 17-32.

Urbany, J. E., Bearden, W. O., ve Weilbaker, D. C. (1988). The effect of plausible and exaggerated reference prices on consumer perceptions and price search. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(1), 95-110.

Valarie, A. Z., ve Bitner, M. (2000). Services marketing: integrating customer focus across the firm. Copyright by the McGraw-Hill Education, 112.

Weathers, D., Sharma, S., ve Wood, S. L. (2007). Effects of online communication practices on consumer perceptions of performance uncertainty for search and experience goods. Journal of Retailing, 83(4), 393-401.

Williams, M. (2007). Word-of-Mouth a Definition of Communication, Elmhurst College. Web.

Winer, R. S. (1986). A reference price model of brand choice for frequently purchased products. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2), 250-256.

Yee, N. (2006). The demographics, motivations, and derived experiences of users of massively multi-user online graphical environments. Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments, 15(3), 309-329.

Yip, M. C. W. (2002). Presentation effects on arithmetic problem solving. Psychologia, 45(2), 90–97.

Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 341-352.

16111 8435

Arşiv
Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Türkiye ve Avro Bölgesi Arasındaki İkili Ticaretin Analizi: Marshall-Lerner Koşulu Geçerli mi?

Mert TOPCU, Salih ÖZDEMİR

Deneyimsel Ürünler ve Araştırma Ürünleri ile İlgili Çevrimiçi Tüketici Yorumları ve Referans Fiyat Bilgisinin Tüketicilerin Satın Alma Davranışları Üzerindeki Etkisi

Kalender Özcan ATILGAN, Hakan TANİŞMAN

Bir Laboratuvarda Tam Kan Sayım Cihazı Alternatiflerinin SWARA, WPM, TODIM ve AHS Yöntemleri ile Değerlendirilmesi

Murat Kemal KELEŞ, Aşkın ÖZDAĞOĞLU, Fatma YÖRÜK EREN

İnsan Haklarına Duyarlı Bütçeleme Analizi: Türkiye Örneği

Gonca GÜNGÖR GÖKSU

Türkiye Ekonomisinde Paranın Rolü

Hasan ŞAHİN, Ümit KOÇ

Kurumsal Yönetim İlkelerinin Türkiye Muhasebe Standartlari (TMS) ve Türkiye Finansal Raporlama Standartlari (TFRS) İçindeki Yeri

Zülkif YALÇIN, Meltem YOLUK

Marka Performansının Kafa Karışıklığı Belirsizlikten Kaçınma ve Marka Sadakati Üzerindeki Aracılık Etkisi

Çiğdem UNURLU

Uçuş Ekiplerinde Sosyal ve Kültürel İmkanlar, Yönetim Sistemi ve Arşiv ile Dış Paydaşların Ölçümlenmesi

Tüzün Tolga İNAN

Küçük ve Orta Ölçekli Şirketlerde Finansal Performans ve Kurumsal Yönetim İlişkisi: Borsa İstanbul Gelişen Şirketler Piyasası Üzerine Bir Uygulama

Mehmet SAĞLAM, Mehmet Baha KARAN

Makinelerin Performanslarının Tercih Seçim Endeksi Yöntemi ile Ölçülmesi ve Toplam Ekipman Etkinliği Değerleri ile Karşılaştırılması

Emre BİLGİN SARI