BİYODİZEL İLE ÇALIŞAN BİR DİZEL MOTORDA YAKIT PÜSKÜRTME AVANSININ PERFORMANS VE EGZOZ EMİSYONLARINA ETKİSİ

Öz Biyodizel, yapısında oksijen bulunduran, sülfür içermeyen, zehirleyici etkisi olmayan, doğada bozunabilir veyenilenebilir bir alternatif dizel motor yakıtıdır. Dizel yakıta göre daha az karbon monoksit, hidrokarbon ve isemisyonu yaydıkları bilinmektedir. Dizel motorlarda herhangi bir ayar ve değişiklik yapılmadankullanılabilmektedir. Püskürtme zamanlaması motor performansı ve egzoz emisyonlarını etkileyen önemliparametrelerden birisidir. Bu parametrelerin optimize edilmesi ile hem yakıt ekonomisi sağlanırken hem dezararlı egzoz emisyonları azaltılabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, biyodizelin yakıt olarak kullanıldığı bir motordapüskürtme avansının motor performansı ve emisyonlarına etkileri dört zamanlı, tek silindirli bir dizel motordaaraştırılmıştır. Püskürtme zamanlaması 24,9, 26,6 ve 28,5°KMA için tam yükte motor momenti, efektif güç,özgül yakıt tüketimi, egzoz gaz sıcaklıkları ile CO, HC ve NOx emisyonları ölçülmüştür. Biyodizel ile çalışmadapüskürtme avansının 26,6°KMA’ya artırılmasıyla motor momenti ve efektif güçte yaklaşık %6’ya kadar artış veözgül yakıt tüketiminde %8’e kadar iyileşme görülmüştür. Ayrıca, CO ve HC emisyonlarında azalma eldeedilirken, NOx emisyonlarında %4-11 arasında değişen artışlar belirlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

Rakopoulos CD., Antonopoulos KA.,

Rakopoulos DC., Hountalas DT., Giakoumis

EG., “Comparative Performance and Emissions

Study of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine using

Blends of Diesel Fuel with Vegetable Oils or

Bio-Diesels of Various Origins”, Energy

Conversion and Management, 47, 18-19, 3272-

, 2006.

Huzayyin AS., Bawady AH., Rady MA., Dawood

A., “Experimental Evaluation of Diesel Engine

Performance and Emission using Blends of

Jojoba Oil and Diesel Fuel”, Energy Conversion

and Management, 45, 13-14, 2093-2112, 2004.

Van Gerpen JH, Peterson CL., Goering CE.,

“Biodiesel: An Alternative Fuel for Compression

Ignition Engines”, Agricultural Equipment

Technology Conference, Louisville, Kentucky,

USA, 1-22, 11-14 February 2007.

Canakci M., and Van Gerpen JH., “Biodiesel

Production Via Acid Catalysis”, Trans. ASAE,

, 5, 1203-1210, 1999.

Canakci M., and Van Gerpen JH., “Biodiesel

Production from Oils and Fats with High Free

Fatty Acids”, Trans. ASAE 44, 6, 1429-1436, 2001.

Ramadhas AS., Jayaraj S., Muraleedharan C.,

“Use of Vegetable Oil as I.C. Engine Fuels - A

Review”, Renewable Energy, 29, 727-742, 2004.

He Y., Bao YD., “Study on Rapeseed Oil as

Alternative Fuel for A Single-Cylinder Diesel

Engine”, Renewable Energy, 28, 1447-1453,

-

Yori JC., D’Ippolito SA., Pieck CL., and Vera

CR., “Deglycerolization of Biodiesel Streams by

Adsorption Over Silica Beds”, Energy & Fuels,

, 347-353, 2007.

Nwafor OMI., Rice G., “Performance of

Rapeseed Oil Blends in Diesel Engines”,

Applied Energy, 54, 4, 345-354, 1996.

Karaosmanoğlu F., “Vegetable Oil Fuels: A

Review”, Energy Sources, 21, 221-231, 1999.

Demirbas A., “Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils via

Catalitic and Non-Catalitic Supercritical Alcohol

Transesterifications and Other Methods: A Survey”, Energy Conversion and Management,

, 2093-2109, 2003.

Demirbas A., “Biodiesel Production via Non-

Catalitic SCF Method and Biodiesel Fuel

Characteristics”, Energy Conversion and

Management, 47, 2271-2282, 2006.

Demirbas A., “Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil in

Supercritical Methanol with Calcium Oxide”,

Energy Conversion and Management, 48, 937-

, 2007.

Canakci M., “Combustion Characteristics of A

Turbocharged DI Compression Ignition Engine

Fueled With Petroleum Diesel Fuels and

Biodiesel”, Bioresource Technology, 98, 1167-

, 2007.

Varde KS., “Some Correlation of Diesel Engine

Performance with Injection Characteristics using

Vegetable Oil as Fuel”, Vegetable Oil Fuels:

Proceedings of the International Conference

on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels, ASAE

Publication, Fargo, ND, 303-311, Aug. 1982.

Baranescu RA., Lusco JJ., “Performance,

Durability and Low Temperature Evaluation of

Sunflower Oil as A Diesel Fuel Extender”,

Vegetable Oil Fuels: Proceedings of the

International Conference on Plant and

Vegetable Oils as Fuels, ASAE Publication,

Fargo, ND, 312-328, Aug. 1982.

Romano S., “Vegetable Oils - A New Alternative”,

Vegetable Oil Fuels: Proceedings of the

International Conference on Plant and

Vegetable Oils as Fuels, ASAE Publication,

Fargo, ND, 106-116Aug. 1982.

Nwafor OMI., “Emission Characteristics of

Diesel Engine Operating on Rapeseed Methyl

Ester”, Renewable Energy, 29(1), 119-129, 2004.

D’Ippolito SA., Yori JC., Iturria ME., Pieck CL.,

and Vera CR., “Analysis of a Two-Step,

Noncatalytic, Supercritical Biodiesel, Production

Process with Heat Recovery”, Energy & Fuels,

, 339-346, 2007.

Gomez MEG., Howard-Hildige R., Leahy JJ.,

O’Reilly T., Supple B., Malone M., “Emission

And Performance Characteristics of A 2 Litre

Toyota Diesel Van Operating on Esterified Waste

Cooking Oil and Mineral Diesel Fuel”,

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,

, 13-20, 2000.

Agarwal AK., Das LM., “Biodiesel development

and characterization for use as a fuel in

compression ignition engines”, J. Eng Gas

Turbines Power, Trans ASME 123, 440-447,

-

Kalam MA., Husnawan M., Masjuki HH.,

“Exhaust Emission and Combustion Evaluation

of Coconut Oil Powered Indirect Injection Diesel

Engine”, Renewable Energy, 28, 2405-2415,

-

Dorado MP., Ballesteros E., Arnal JM., Gomez

J., Lopez FJ., “Exhaust Emissions from A Diesel

Engine Fuelled with Transesterified Waste Olive

Oil”, Fuel,;82,11, 1311-1315, 2003.

Altin R, Cetinkaya S, Yucesu HS., “The Potential

of using Vegetable Oil Fuels as Fuel for Diesel

Engines”, Energy Conversion and Management,

, 5, 529-538, 2001.

Nwafor OMI., “Emission Characteristics of

Diesel Engine Running on Vegetable Oil with

Elevated Fuel Inlet Temperature”, Biomass and

Bioenergy, 27,5, 507-511, 2004.

Yahya A., and Marley SJ., “Performance and

Exhaust Emissions of A Compression Ignition

Engine Operating on Ester Fuels at Increased

Injection Pressure and Advanced Timing”,

Biomass and Bioenergy, 6, 4, 297-319, 1994.

Monyem A., Van Gerpen JH., “The Effect of

Biodiesel Oxidation on Engine Performance and

Emissions”, Biomass and Bioenergy, 20, 317-

, 2001.

Fernando S., Hall C., and Jha S., “NOx Reduction

from Biodiesel Fuels”, Energy & Fuels, 20, 376-

, 2006.

Canakci M., “Combustion Characteristics of A

Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel from

Soybean Oil”, 8th International Combustion

Symposium, September 8-9, Ankara, Turkey,

-376, 2004.

Tat ME., Investigation of Oxides of Nitrogen

Emissions from Biodiesel-Fueled Engines,

Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State University, 2003.

Boehman AL., Morris D., Szybist J., Esen E.,

“The Impact of The Bulk Modulus of Diesel

Fuels on Fuel Injection Timing”, Energy &

Fuels, 18, 1877-1882, 2004.

Kegl B., “Experimental Investigation of Optimal

Timing of The Diesel Engine Injection Pump

using Biodiesel”, Fuel, Energy & Fuels, 20,

-1470, 2006.

Szybist J.P., Boehman A.L.,Taylor J.D.,

McCormic R.L. “Evaluation of Formulation

Strategies to Eliminate The Biodiesel NOx

Effect” Fuel Processing Technology 86, 1109–

, 2005.

Dorado MP., Ballesteros E., Arnal JM., Gomez

J., Lopez FJ., “Exhaust Emissions from A Diesel

Engine Fuelled with Transesterified Waste Olive

Oil” Fuel, 82(11):1311-5, 2003.

Kalam MA., Masjuki HH., “Biodiesel from Palm

Oil An Analysis of Its Properties and Potential”,

Biomass Bioenergy, 23, 471-479, 2002.

Lin CY., Huang JC., “An Oxygenating Additive

for Improving The Performance and Emission

Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engines”,

Ocean Engineering, 30, 13, 1699-1715, 2003.

Borat O., Balcı M., Sürmen A., İçten Yanmalı

Motorlar, Teknik Eğitim Vakfı Yayınları, Cilt 1,

Ankara, 1995.

Öz İH., Borat O., Sürmen A., İçten Yanmalı

Motorlar, Birsen Yayınevi, İstanbul, 262-269,

-

Safgönül B., Ergeneman M., Arslan HE.,

Soruşbay C., İçten Yanmalı Motorlar, Birsen

Yayınevi, İstanbul, 196-204, 1999.

Topgül T., Tek Silindirli Direkt Püskürtmeli

Bir Dizel Motorunda Püskürtme Avansı ve

Püskürtme Basıncının Motor Performansına

ve Egzoz Emisyonlarına Etkisinin Deneysel

Analizi, Y.Lisans Tezi, Gazi Üniv. Fen Bil.

Enst., 61-67, 2000.

Stone, R., Introduction to Internal Combustion

Engines, Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndsmills,

UK, 232-233, 1999.

Nwafor OMI, Rice G, Ogbonna AI., “Effect of

Advanced Injection Timing on The Performance

of Rapeseed Oil in Diesel Engines”, Renewable

Energy, 21, 3-4, 433-44, 2000.

Usta N., “An Experimental Study on

Performance and Exhaust Emissions of A Diesel

Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Oil Methyl

Ester”, Energy Conversion and Management,

, 15-16, 2373-2386, 2005.

Usta N., Öztürk E., Can Ö., Conkur ES., Nas S.,

Çon AH., Can AÇ. and Topcu M., “Combustion

of Biodiesel Fuel Produced from Hazelnut

Soapstock/Waste Sunflower Oil Mixture in A

Diesel Engine”, Energy Conversion and

Management, 46, 5, 741-755, 2005.

Usta N., Can Ö., Öztürk E., “An Experimental

Study On Performance and Exhaust of A Diesel

Engine Fuelled with Diesel Fuel No. 2/Waste

Sunflower Oil Methyl Ester Blends”,

Uluslararası 9. yanma sempozyumu, Kırıklale,

Turkey, 89-103, 16-17 Kasım, 2006.

Usta N., “Use of Tobacco Seed Oil Methyl Ester

in A Turbocharged Indirect Injection Diesel

Engine”, Biomass and Bioenergy, 28, 1, 77-86,

-

Abdel-Rahman AA., “On The Emissions from

Internal-Combustion Engines: A Review”,

International Journal of Energy Research, 22,

-513, 1998.

Ergeneman M., Arslan HE., Mutlu M., Kutlar

OA., Taşıt Egzozundan Kaynaklanan

Kirleticiler, Birsen Yayınevi, İstanbul, 21-24,

-

Oven K., Coley T., Automotive Fuels Reference

Book, 2nd edition, SAE, Warrendale, USA, 543-

, 1995.