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Gazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi

Yıl 2010 , Cilt 12 , Sayı 1

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Başlık :

Doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarının istihdam etkisi: türk bankacılık sektörü örneği

Yazar kurumları :
Gazi Üniversitesi1, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi2, Çalışma Ekonomisi ve Endüstri İlişkileri Bölümü3, Gazi Üniversitesi4, İktisadi ve İdari
Görüntülenme :
143
DOI :
Özet Türkçe :

Doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımı kavramı hem ideolojik, hem de ekonomik açıdan oldukça önemli bir kavramdır. Doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarına bakış açısı da ideolojik ve iktisadi görüşler çerçevesinde şekillenmektedir. Bununla beraber iktisat literatüründe doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarının olumlu etkileri sıralanırken, gelişmekte olan ülkeler farklılaşmasına gidilmiştir. Gelişmekte olan ülkelerin sermaye birikimlerinin yeterli olmaması dolayısıyla doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarına olan bakış açısı iktisaden farklıdır. Doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarının sermaye birikimi sağlaması ve ülkelerin döviz girişlerini arttırması nedeniyle gelişmekte olan ülkeler açısından faydaları, hem iktisadi açıdan hem de istihdam açısından farklılaşmaktadır. İktisat literatüründe doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarının istihdam etkisi oldukça yer kaplamaktadır. Buna karşılık istihdam etkisinin ölçülmesi noktasında veri eksikliği ve ölçüm zorlukları ön plana çıkmaktadır. Bu noktada özellikle sektör ayrımı yapılması ve alanın daraltılması gerekmektedir. Çalışmada bu anlayış çerçevesinde Türk bankacılık sektörü özelinde doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarının istihdam etkisi ölçülmeye çalışılmıştır. Seçilen bankaların istihdam ve toplam aktif büyüklüklerinin sektöre oranı göz önünde bulundurularak değerlendirmelerde bulunulmuştur. İstihdam etkisi ölçülürken istihdamdaki farklılaşmanın tümünün doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarına bağlanmasının önüne geçilmesi açısından kontrol grubu oluşturulmuştur. Doğrudan yabancı sermayenin tüm sermayesinin %50'sini geçmeyen bankalardan kontrol grubu oluşturularak istihdamdaki değişimin karşılaştırılması sağlanmıştır. İstihdamın doğrudan yabancı sermaye ile olan ilişkisi bakımından Türk bankacılık sektörü çerçevesinde elde edilen sonuçlar istihdamın sayısal artışı bakımından pozitif olmakla beraber, istihdamın niteliği ve yatırımın istihdamı sürdürmesi açısından yeterli büyüklükte değildir.ısı da ideolojik ve iktisadi gre oranı g

Özet İngilizce :

Foreign direct investment concept is very important from the ideological but also economically. The point of view to the foreign direct investment is shaped in the framework of the ideological and economic views. However, the positive effect of foreign direct investments in the economic literature is lined up to the differentiation of developing countries. Developing countries point of view to foreign direct investment is different economically because of the lack of adequate capital. Providing capital and foreign currency and due to increase inputs in terms of benefits, developing countries perspective both economically and in terms of employment are differ. Foreign direct investments employment effect is quite compact in the economic literature. However, the lack of data at the point of the measurement of employment effects and measurement difficulties has come to the fore. At this point, especially in sensitive sectors and the field needs to be narrow. In this study within the framework of this understanding in the Turkish banking sector, foreign direct investment has been attempting to measure the employment effects. Selected employment and total assets of banks to the sector rate were taken into consideration in the evaluations. Employment effect is measured in the employment of all foreign direct investments of differentiation to prevent connecting to the control group was created for. Foreign direct investment not exceeding 50% of all capital from banks by creating a control group comparison of change in employment has been made. Analysis of the results of the three models, both in the number of branches, as well as the increase in total assets of the annual growth in employment was found to have an effect on the increase. On the other hand, foreign capital investments for the periods created dummy variables all banks without discrimination assessment of the model, employment in the annual growth on the foreign investment comes after the negative impact the while, only the foreign investment area for banks established in the model I. Contrary to the model of this effect is positive, but after the investment period than the period before declining to make an impact where it is concluded. The most important reason for this, through the purchase of foreign investment in the first place the impact is the reduction in employment growth. According to the analysis result, 1% increase in annual growth in the number of branches; annual growth in employment of foreign capital in banks is 0.35% while increasing, Turkish banks were 0.49% for this effect. Similarly, a 1% increase in annual growth in total assets, foreign banks in total employment growth over the 0.02%, 0.08% in Turkish banks leads to an increase. Increase in the number of branches, the impact of employment growth in Turkish banks more, the area of foreign investment in banks to be less foreign capital is explained by the technological level. Turkish bank's recently opened a branch in the technology level needed in the workforce while more than foreignowned banks for using advanced technology, recently opened a branch level in less staff are employed. As an indirect result of this, as described earlier in Turkish banks did not show many differences in average wages, wage differentials between foreign-owned banks are relatively high position. Foreign-owned banks and fewer low-skilled staff are employed, as well as wage differences between skilled staff and unskilled staff are kept high. Increase in total assets reflected in the employment, does not make much impact as expected in all banks. In this respect, Turkish banks are banks with foreign capital investment in areas of employment growth in total assets, regardless of the decisions taken can be said. Turkish banking sector in particular, job creation and labor force expected to change the nature of foreign direct investments to the sector directly by the positive results are not taken. In addition the banking sector in particular foreign direct investment level should be kept under the control. At a time when liberalization and globalization of the economy be involved in the local economy, hostility to the foreign capital is not sustainable and rational, both economically and politically. However, in line with the results of this study must be said that foreign direct investments employment effect in the Turkish banking sector in terms of quantity is positive. However, in the sense of the quality of the employment effects of university graduates with doctoral and graduate alumni group is positive, but not enough and less than excepted.

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