Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Bu çalışmada doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımları ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki ilişki, panel eştümleşme ve panel nedensellik yöntemleri kullanılarak 25 geçiş ekonomisi için incelenmiştir. Teorik olarak, doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımları gittiği ülkenin tasarruf yetersizliği sorununun çözümüne veya sermaye birikimine katkıda bulunarak ekonomik büyümeye neden olacağı beklenir. Diğer yönden, doğrudan yabancı sermaye akımlarının yönü yüksek büyüme performansına, ekonomik ve siyasi istikrara sahip ülkelere doğru olacaktır. Bu çalışmada uygulanan Pedroni panel eştümleşme, geleneksel Granger nedensellik, Holtz-Eakin ve diğerleri (1988) tarafından önerilen ve iki aşamalı EKK yöntemine dayanan panel nedensellik sonuçları teoriyi desteklemektedir. Böyle ki, panel eştümleşme analizine göre doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımları ve ekonomik büyüme değişkenleri uzun dönemde birlikte hareket etmekteler ve ortak bir yönelime sahipler. Kısa dönem ilişkinin incelendiği panel nedensellik sınamalarının sonuçları doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarından ekonomik büyümeye doğru güçlü, tersi yönde ise daha zayıf bir nedensellik ilişkisinin olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu sonuçlar, geçiş ekonomilerinde doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımları ile ekonomik büyüme arasında çift yönlü nedensellik ilişkisi olduğunu gösterir. Ekonomik büyümeden yabancı sermaye yatırımlarına doğru nedensellik ilişkisinin varlığı, içsel büyüme teorilerindeki büyüme dinamiklerinin sistem içinde olduğu görüşünü desteklemektedir.
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the empirical literature on the relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth in the case of twenty-five transition economies. According to the standard economic theory foreign direct investment is expected to cause economic growth by contributing to the betterment of inadequate savings and volume of investment. Thus, foreign direct investment augments capital stock in the host country. In addition, bring-about developed management knowledge, manufacturing method, and production technology. Foreign direct investment inflows cause to economic growth indirectly through competition, effectiveness and productivity increases in host country. On the other hand, the economic growth performance of country can affect foreign direct investment inflows. In endogenous growth theory dynamics of economic growth is determined inside the system. Namely, theoretically it is possible that economic growth affects total investments and also foreign direct investment. Country which has high economic growth rates, economical and political stabilization or expected to growth high may induce more foreign direct investment. The foreign capital, when choosing country to investigate, considers the growth performance of host country together with risks. Thus, in economic theory growth can attract more foreign direct investment flows and foreign direct investment can boost economic growth. Existing empirical researchs searching relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth show inconclusive results. Studies which investigating this relationship in transition economies also show mixed results. For example Campos and Kinoshita (2002), Merlevede and Schoors (2004) show that foreign direct investment has robust impact on economic growth. But, Lyroudi et al (2004) find that foreign direct investment has no impact on growth. Using fixed effects panel data approach, Nath (2004) find that in presence of trade in growth equation, foreign direct investment does not seem to have any significant effect on growth. Conclusion of the panel study Değer and Emsen (2006) indicate that in transition countries which have political stability, a position to developed countries, and a given development level foreign direct investment is a dynamic factor of economic growth. Another study, concerned transition economies is Aleksynska et al (2008). Their main fainding indicates that there is little empirical evidence that foreign direct investment stimulates economic growth beyond the current year, it is also reveals that there is little empirical evidence of reverse causation. The empirical analysis, which uses data on twenty-five transition economies and performed in three steps, is based on panel cointegration and panel causality tests. First, the paper uses LLC and IPS panel unit root tests to investigate stationary characteristics and determined the integration order of foreign direct investment and economic growth series. Second, it is investigated the long run relationship using panel cointegration test which developed by Pedroni (1999, 2004). Pedroni's panel cointegration analysis is based on Engle-Granger two step cointegration tests. Third, in this study are used two type of causality tests to investigate short run relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth in transition economies case. First of the causality tests is traditional Granger causality approach for panel ordinary least squares, fixed effects, and random effects models. Finally, panel causality tests which developed by Holtz- Eakin et al (1988) and based on two stages least square method are performed. Results obtained from panel cointegration and panel causality analysis confirm the endogenous growth theory. Pedroni panel cointegration test indicate that foreign direct investment and economic growth series have a long run equilibrium relationship. Traditional Granger causality and two stage least square method developed by Holtz-Eakin et al (1988) suggest there is robust evidence that the foreign direct investment causes to economic growth. Results from causality tests about reverse causation indicate lesser affection of economic growth on foreign direct investment. Thus, there is bidirectional causality between foreign direct investment and economic growth in twenty-five transition economies panel. This results shows that foreign direct investment inflows accelerate economic growth. On the other hand, high economic growth rates attract more foreign direct investment. Causal relationship from economic growth to foreign direct investment confirms the opinion that determinants of economic growth is inside the system in endogenous growth theory.