“KENDİ YOLUMU KENDİM ÇİZDİM”: ABD’NİN İLK AFRİKA KÖKENLİ KADIN MİLYONERİ MADAM CJ WALKER’IN GİRİŞİMCİ KARİYERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

Öz ABD’nin işletme tarihine ekonomik ve sosyolojik bağlamlar da dikkate alınarak bakıldığında,girişimciliğin ve girişimcilerin desteklendiğini söylemek mümkündür. Öte yandan ABD İç Savaşınıngerçekleşmesi, sonrasında siyahi vatandaşların özgürlüklerini kazanmaları, ekonomik yaşam içindeköle olarak çalıştırılmadan özgür bireyler olarak yer alabilmelerinin önünün açılması gibi hususlarülke tarihinde yer alan önemli kırılma noktalarıdır. Ancak siyahi kadınların iş hayatına katılmalarınınyanı sıra girişimcilik faaliyetlerinde bulunmaları hem ırk hem de cinsiyet ayrımcılığı sebebiyle çoğuzaman engellenmiştir. Bununla birlikte atipik özellikler gösteren bazı kadın girişimcilere rastlamak damümkündür. Madam CJ Walker bunlardan biridir. 1905-1919 yılları arasında girişimcilik faaliyetindebulunan Walker, ABD’nin ilk Afrika kökenli kadın milyoneri olarak adlandırılmış ve yönetici, hayırsever,politik aktivist gibi özellikleri bünyesinde barındıran başarılı bir girişimci profili sergilemiştir. Buçalışmanın amacı 20. yüzyılda faaliyet göstermiş bir kadın girişimcinin kariyer gelişimini çeşitlibaşlıklarda ele alıp, sosyolojik ve ekonomik bağlamları da dikkate alarak incelemektir. Bu kapsamdanitel araştırma metodu kullanılarak önemli bir tarihsel bir figür olan Madam CJ Walker’ın girişimcikariyeri W. Gibb Dyer Jr.’ın Girişimci Kariyer Modeli ile incelenmiş ve çeşitli biyografi kitapları, tarihselanaliz kitapları ve makaleler üzerinden ikincil verilere dayanan bir analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ulaşılansonuçlar atipik bir kadın girişimcinin kariyer seçimini etkileyen öncüller, kişinin girişimcilikle ilgilirollere adapte olmasını sağlayan sosyalizasyon tecrübeleri, girişimcilikle ilgili rolleri (kariyer yönelimi),kariyer gelişimi süresince ortaya çıkan kişisel, ailevi ve işle ilgili sorunlar, çatışmalar ve ikilemler ilebu alanlardaki başarı/başarısızlıkları kapsamında zengin ve açıklayıcı bilgiler sunmaktadır. Ayrıcaincelenen modelde olmayan birtakım unsurlara da değinilmiştir.

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