Fahriye Begüm YILDIZELİ

9 9

Öz Belief and religion are interconnectedterms for the purposes of defining discrimination and segregation insidesocieties. Particularly, during the white dominated regime years in theAmerican South and South Africa, two main religions; Christianity and Islam wereessence of key weapons in order to assemble and to collaborate for black peopleagainst black segregation. Moreover, religion played a vital role in the BlackPower movement which paved the way for researchers and historians to conclusivelyascertain answers to why religion should be considered as one of the vitaldynamics of political resistance. This research will attempt to investigatethe impact of the religions to the process of the black resistances as the massmovements both ‘the Black Consciousness Movement’ in South Africa and ‘CivilRights Movement’ in the American South basically between the years 1960 and1975. Besides, in order to achieve the arguments with comparisons and similarities,Islam in the American South and Christianity in South Africa will be examinedspecifically. Additionally,the image that specific religious leaders’ ideals and thoughts shaped on thefollowers will be annexed to the research. Steve Biko and Malcolm X’s analysiswill be the key terms in order to reflect the religion in the black awakeningas a mass movement. Basically, there will be an attempt to evaluatethe historical period of racism and its implication for the black segregation.After defining the black resistance movements linked by the religious thoughtsand also by the leaders, eventually, the similarities, compassions and the linksbetween them will be reached as a conclusion.   
Anahtar Kelimeler: Black Power Movement, Steve Biko, religion, Malcolm X, civil rights


Adam H., Giliomee H. (1979). Ethnic Power Mobilized, Can South Africa Change? United States of America: Yale University Press.Cell, J.W. (1982). The Highest Stage of White Supremacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Cone, J.H. (1999). Risks of Faith: The Emergence of a Black Theology of Liberation, 1968-1998. Boston: Beacon. Conyers, J. L. Jr. (2006). Engines of the Black Power Movement, Essays on the Influence of Civil Rights Actions, Arts and Islam. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc, Curtis, E., E. (2002). Islam in Black America: Identity, Liberation and Difference in African-American Islamic Thought. Albany: State University of New York.Dubow, S. (1995). Scientific Racism in South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fatton, R. (1986). Black Consciousness in South Africa the Dialectics of Ideological Resistance to White Supremacy. United States of America: State University of New York.Fredrickson, G. M. (2002). Racism a Short History. Oxford: University of Princeton. Harris, F. C. (1994). Something Within: Religion as a Mobilizer of African-American Political Activism, The Journal of Politics, 56 (1), 42-68.Harris, F. C. (1999). Something Within: Religion in African-American Political Activism, Oxford: Oxford University.Lilcoln, C., E., (1994). The Black Muslims in America. Michigan: Africa World. Unsworth, T. (1997). Racism and Religion: Partners in Crime?, Salt of the Earth http://salt.claretianpubs.org/issues/racism/unsworth.html, 29.04.2018.Roberts J. D. (2005). Bonhoeffer and King: Speaking Truth to Power. United States of America: Library of Congress in publication DataSavage, B., D. (2008). The Politics of Black Religion, Your Spirits Walk Beside Us. United States of America: The Belknap Press of Harvard University.Stubbs, Cr. A. (1988). Steve Biko I Write What I Like. Great Britain: Penguin Books.Turner, R. B. (1997). Islam in the African-American Experience. Indiana: Indiana University.Walshe, P. (1983). Church versus State in South Africa: the Case of Christian Institute. United Kingdom: C. Hurst & Co.Williams, J. (2002). Linking Beliefs to Collective Action: Politicized Religious Beliefs and the Civil Rights Movement. Sociological Forum, 17 (2), 203-222.