On Identity Treatises as a Subject of Sociology of Knowledge with Historic and Social Origins of Identity Problem

For the emergence of a community or a nation, it has always been necessary to bring local identities and different ethnic groups around one common cultural center. However, the process of integrating individuals into a dominant ethnicity or cultural center certainly causes several social, cultural and political problems. During the progress of communication systems from the newspapers to the television and the social media, the issue has gained momentum with the expression of reactions to the ethnical cultures which were formed centrally. It is interesting that social studies highlights identity studies which focuses on diverse issues ranging from the question of how administrative authorities can manage counterweights other than the center to the question of what is the legitimacy of giving privileges to the members of minority groups. This situation arises as a natural result of social, cultural and political centralization, and from the increasing concern in social sciences about gathering data as it needs to give an immediate answer to the question of how to restructure the social positions and the roles of minority groups which realize that they are different from the center. This study focuses on the historical and social origins of the growing popularity of identity studies in social sciences. In this regard, the development and the growing popularity of identity studies and the types of data it provides community and their problems are examined in this study. 

On Identity Treatises as a Subject of Sociology of Knowledge with Historic and Social Origins of Identity Problem

For the emergence of a community or a nation, it has always been necessary to bring local identities and different ethnic groups around one common cultural center. However, the process of integrating individuals into a dominant ethnicity or cultural centercertainly causes several social, cultural and political problems. During theprogress of communication systems from the newspapers to the television and the social media, the issue has gained momentum with the expression of reactions to the ethnical cultures which were formed centrally. It is interestingthat social studies highlights identity studies which focuses on diverse issues ranging from the question of how administrative authoritiescan manage counterweights other than the center to the question of what is the legitimacy of giving privileges to the members of minority groups. This situation arises as a natural result of social, cultural and political centralization, and from the increasing concern in social sciences about gathering data as it needs to give an immediate answer to the question of how to restructure the social positions and the roles of minority groups which realize that they are different from the center. This study focuses on the historical and social origins of the growing popularity of identity studies in social sciences. In this regard, the development and the growing popularity of identity studies and the types of data it provides community and their problems are examined in this study.

Kaynakça

AHMED, A. (1992)In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures, London: Verso Press.

ALCOFF, L. M. (2005)Visible Identities: Race, Gender, and the Self. New York: Oxford University Press.

APPIAH, K. A. (2004)The Ethics of Identity.Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

ARENDT, H. (1978)The Jew as Pariah: Jewish Identity and Politics in the Modern Age. New York: Grove Press.

ASANTE, M. K. (2005)Race, Rhetoric, and Identity: The Architecton of Soul. New York: Humanity Books.

BARKER, C. (2006)Television, Globalization and Cultural Identities. London: Open University Press.

BAUMAN, Z.(1989)Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.

BAUMAN, Z. (1993)Postmodern Ethics. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.

BAUMAN, Z.(1998) Identity - Then, Now, what For?.Polish Sociological Review. 123.p. 205-216.

BAXTER, J. (2004)Positioning Gender in Discourse: A Feminist Methodology. New York: Palgrave.

BEACH, R., THEIN, A., and Parks, D. (2007)High School Students’ Competing Social Worlds: Negotiating Identities and Allegiances through Responding To Multicultural Literature. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.

BEST, J. (2003) Killing the Messenger: The Social Problems of Sociology.Social Problems. 50(1).p. 1-13.

BHABHA, H. K. (1994) Frontlines/Borderposts. In BAMMER, A(edS.).Displacements: Cultural Identities In Question. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

BIRD, E. (2003)The Audience in Everyday Life: Living in a Media World. New York: Routledge.

BOYARIN, D. (1994)A Radical Jew: Paul And The Politics Of Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

BROWN, J. D. (1998)The Self. New York: McGraw-Hill.

BUCKINGHAM, D. (2007)Youth, Identity, and Digital Media, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

BUELL, L. (2001)Writing for an Endangered World: Literature, Culture, and the Environment. Cambridge MA: Harvard UP.

BUTLER, J. (1990)Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.

BUTLER, J. (2004)Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge.

CAMPANO, G. (2007)Immigrant Students and Literacy: Reading, Writing, and Remembering. New York: Teachers College Press.

CHALIAND, G. and YVES, T.(1983).The Armenians: From Genocide to Resistance, Translated by BERRETT, T.London: Zed Books.

CHAMBERS, I. (1994)Migrancy, Culture, Identity. London: Routledge.

CLIFFORD, J. (1994) Diasporas.Cultural Anthropology.Further Inflections: Toward

Ethnographies of the Future, American Anthropological Association, Wiley.9(3)p. 302-338. COHEN, R. (1996). Diasporas and the Nation State: From Victims to Challengers. International Affairs. 72(3) p. 507-520.

COHEN, R. (1994)Frontiers of Identity: The British and The Others. London: Longman

CORNELL, S., & HARTMANN, D. (2006),Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World.2nd Ed. California: Pine Forge.

DAUM, A. W. (2009). Varieties of Popular Science and the Transformations of Public Knowledge: Some Historical Reflections.Isis, 100(2) pp. 319-332.

DE CERTEAU, M. (1984)The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

On Identity Treatises as a Subject of Sociology of Knowledge 177 DEKMEJIAN, R. H. (1991) Determinants of Genocide: Armenians and Jews as Case Studies.

In HOVANNISIAN (eds.) The Armenian Genocide in Perspective. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction Publishers. DELGADO, R.,& STEFANCIC, J. (2001)Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press.

DHALIWAL, A. K (1994) Introduction: The Traveling Nation: India and Its Diaspora. Socialist Review.24 (4).p.1–11.

DUNN, K. (2003)Theories of Identity and Place. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage.

ELLIOTT, A. (2001)Concepts of Self. Cambridge UK: Polity Press.

ELLSWORTH, E. (2004)Places of Learning: Media, Architecture, Pedagogy, New York: Routledge.

ENTMAN, R. M. & ROJECKI, A. (2001)The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

EVANS, J. (2006)Visual Culture. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage Publications.

FERGUS, E. (2004)Skin Color and Identity Formation. New York: Routledge.

FERGUSON, R. (1998).Representing “Race”: Ideology, Identity and The Media.London: Hodder Arnold Publication.

FETTERLEY, J. & PRYSE, M. (2002)Writing Out Of Place: Regionalism, Women and American Literary Culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

GAUNTLETT, D. (2002)Media, Gender and Identity. New York: Routledge.

GELLNER, Ernest. (1964)Thought and Change. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.

GIDDENS, A. (1991)Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Palo Alto CA: Stanford University.

GITLIN, T. (1996)The Twilight Of Common Dreams: Why America Is Wracked By Culture Wars. New York: Owl Books.

GOFFMAN, E. (1958)The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NJ: Anchor.

GOFFMAN, E. (1967)Interaction Ritual. New York: Pantheon: New York.

GOLDSTEIN, J. and RAYNER, J. (1994) The Politics of Identity in Late Modern Society. Theory and Society 23(3) p. 367-384.

GORDAN, D. (2003) Black Identity: Rhetoric, Ideology, and Nineteenth-Century Black Nationalism. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

GOURDINE, A. (2002)The Difference Place Makes: Gender, Sexuality, and Diaspora Identity. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.

GUTIERREZ, K. D. and ROGOFF, B. (2003) Cultural Ways of Learning: Individual Traits of Repertoires of Practice.Educational Researcher.32(5) p.19-25.

HALL, S. (1990) Cultural identity and diaspora in Jonathan Rutherford (ed.) Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence &Wishart.

HALL, S. (1991a) Ethnicity, Identity and Difference.Radical America.23 (4).p.9–20.

HALL, S. (1991b) The Local and the Global: Globalization and Ethnicity. In KING, A. D. (eds.) Culture, Globalization and The World-System: Contemporary Conditions for the Representation of Identity. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

HALL, S. (1992)The question of Cultural Identity. In HALL, S. et al. (eds.) Modernity And Its Futures.Cambridge: Polity Press in Association with the Open University.

HALL, S. (1995) Negotiating Caribbean identities.New Left Review. (209) January–February. p.3–14.

HERMES, J. (2005)Re-Reading Popular Culture: Rethinking Gender, Television And Popular Media Audiences. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

HOBBES, T. (1991 [1651])Leviathan.TRUCK, R. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

HOLLAND, D., LACHICOTTE, W., SKINNER, D. and CAIN, C. (2001),Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds. Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press.

HUGHEY, M. W. (2009) Cinethetic Racism: White Redemption and Black Stereotypes in Magical Negro Films.Social Problems.56(3).p. 543-577.

JONES, E. (1981)The European Miracle: Environments, Economies and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

KELLNER, D. (1995)Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. New York: Routledge.

KYMLICKA, W. (1995)Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

LEARY, M. R. (2004)The Curse Of The Self: Self-Awareness, Egotism, And The Quality Of Human Life. New York: Oxford University Press.

LEMELLE, S. J. et al. (1994)Imagining Home: Class, Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. London: Verso

LEWIS, C. (2001)Literary Practices As Social Acts: Power, Status, And Cultural Norms In The Classroom.New York: Erlbaum.

LOW, S. M. (2000).On the Plaza: The Politics of Public Space and Culture, Austin: University of Texas Press.

MACNAMARA, J. R. (2006)Media and Male Identity: The Making and Remaking Of Men.New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

MAJORS, Y. J. (2003) Shoptalk: Teaching and Learning in an African American Hair Salon. Mind, Culture, and Activity.10(4).p.2893

MALESEVIC, S. (2006)Identity as Ideology: Understanding Ethnicity and Nationalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

MANTERO, M. (2007)Identity and Second Language Learning: Culture, Inquiry, and Dialogic Activity in Educational Settings. Charlotte, North Carolina: Information Age Publishing.

MASSEY, D. (1994)Space, Place, and Gender. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

MICHAELS, W. B. (2006)The Trouble With Diversity: How We Learned To Love Identity and Ignore Inequality. New York: Metropolitan.

MOSTOV, J. (Jun., 1994) Democracy and the Politics of National Identity.Studies in East European Thought.46(1/2) Nationalism and Social Science.p. 9-31.

MURPHY, P. F. and HALL, K. (Ed.) (2008)Learning and Practice: Agency and Identities. New York: Open University Press.

MURRELL, P. C. (2007)Race, Culture, and Schooling: Identities of Achievement in Multicultural Urban Schools. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

NADEL, A. (2005)Television in Black-And-White America: Race and National Identity, Lawrence. KS: University of Kansas Press.

PAGEL, Mark (2012)Wired For Culture: Origins of The Human Social Mind. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

PAREKH, B. (1994) Some Reflections on the Hindu Diaspora.New Community.20(4). p.603–620.

PARSONS, T. (1949 [1937])The Structure of Social Action Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

REICH, W. (1987) Israel and the Diaspora.Jewish Social Studies. 49 (3–4).p.326–32.

REX, J. (1995) Ethnic Identity and the Nation State: The Political Sociology of Multi-Cultural Societies.Social Identities.1 (1).p.21–

ROGALY, B. & Taylor, B. (2009)Moving Histories of Class And Community: Identity, Place And Belonging in Contemporary England. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

SAFRAN, W. (1991) Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return. Diaspora.1(1).p.83–99.

SAFRAN, W. (2005a),The Jewish Diaspora in a Comparative and Theoretical Perspective. Israel Studies. 10 (1) p.37–60

SAFRAN, W. (2005b) The Tenuous Link between Hostlands and Homeland: The Progressive Dezionization of Western Diasporas.In ANTEBY-YEMENI L., BERTHOMIERE, W. and SHEFFER, G. (eds.)Les Diasporas: 2000 AnsD’histoire, Rennes: Presse Universitaires de Rennes.

SAID, E. (1990) Reflections on Exile. In FERGUSON, R. et al. (eds.) Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

SAID, E.(1991).Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient.Harmondsworth: Penguin Press.

SCHLESINGER, A. M. (1991)The Disuniting Of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society. New York: W.W. Norton.

SHAIN, Y.& BARTH, A. (2003).Diasporas and International Relations Theory. International Organization. 57(3) p. 449-479.

SHUSTERMAN, R. (1993)Next Year in Jerusalem: Postmodern Jewish Identity and the Myth of Return. In GOLDBERG D. T. and KRAUSZ M. (eds.) Jewish Identity, Philadephia: Temple University Press.

SMYTH, J., ANGUS, L., DOWN, B., and MCINERNEY, P. (2008) Critically Engaged Learning: Connecting To Young Lives. New York: Peter Lang.

SOJA, E. (1997)Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space In Critical Social Theory. New York: Verso.

SÖKEFELD, M. (2006) Mobilizing In Transnational Space: A Social Movement Approach To The Formation Of Diaspora.Global Networks.6 (3).p.265–84.

STEELE, S. (1990)The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America, New York: St. Martin’s Press.

SWIDLER, A.& ARDITI, J. (1994) The New Sociology of Knowledge.Annual Review of Sociology. 20. p. 305-329.

TAYLOR, A. J. P. (1954)The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 184819 Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

TAYLOR, C. (1992)Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

TAYLOR, C. (2006)The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

THOMASHOW, M. (1996)Ecological Identity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

TÖLÖLYAN, K. (1996) Rethinking Diaspora(s): Stateless Power in The Transnational Moment.Diaspora. 5(1): 3–36.

TOMASELLO, M. (2008)Origins of Human Communication. London: The MIT Press.

VERTOVEC, S. (1999) Conceiving and researching transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies.22(2).p.447–62.

WALLERSTEIN, I. (Sep., 1976) A World-System Perspective on the Social Sciences.The British Journal of Sociology.27(3).Special Issue.History and Sociology.p. 343-352.

WEBER, S. (2005) Intercultural Learning as Identity Negotiation. New York: Peter Lang.

WERBNER, P. (2002) The Place Which Is Diaspora; Citizenship, Religion And Gender In The Making OfChaordic Transnationalism. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28 (1).p.119–33.

WILLIAMS, B. T. (Ed.) (2006)Identity Papers: Literacy and Power in Higher Education.Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.

WORTHAM, S. (2006)Learning Identity: The Joint Emergence Of Social Identification And Academic Learning.Cambridge University Press.