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The purpose of the present research is to investigate and compare the effect of instruction on the degree of critical thinking and reasoning, learning, and retention of students at B.A. level in Shahid Beheshti Training College in Gonbad Kavus using the Concept Map teaching model and the current (traditional) method. The quasi-experimental research plan was applied on two groups (n1=20, n2=20) so that the following question can be answered: Are there any differences statistically between the performances of the students instructed in the two methods concerning their critical thinking, reasoning, learning, and retention? The sample body consisted of 40 people, and it was calculated using the Cochran formula. Students in the two groups learned the course “principles of Education” through the Concept Map model and the current (traditional) method respectively. For collecting data, a researcher-made test on learning, another one on retention, and the Californian Critical Thinking Questionnaire were used, all of which put into practice after their validities and reliabilities were confirmed in two stages, i.e. before and after the experiment. The gathered data was analyzed using the t-test to compare the independent means and the covariance analysis in order to control the pretest effect. Results showed that the learning and retention performance of the students who had been instructed in the Concept Map model is higher than that in the intact (control) group, and the Concept Map model has been more effective than the current method in critical thinking as well.