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This study investigates the effects of the minority and foreign schools on the education systems of the Ottomans. This study was carried out in order to investigate the historical development of those schools, which were founded to meet the educational needs of the minorities and foreigners living in the Ottoman Empire, and their effects on the Ottoman education system. The study is focused on a specific period and it is a descriptive one which employs the enquiry model with the fundamental aspects of research. The data are secondary data and were collected with direct and indirect techniques by searching through records and documents. First of all, they were subjected to a validity test to see if they were genuine or not, and then they were examined in terms of reliability. Finally, the sources were grouped according to their types and contributions and classified after being compared to equivalent sources. It may be said that the results and findings can be generalized in order to explain the western effect on the Ottoman education system and the changes it underwent. The minority schools were the Greek, Armenian and Jewish schools. The foreign schools were the other non-Muslim educational institutions. Literature focuses on their missionary activities. However, the primary concern should be their subsequent effects: the number of students in Ottoman society increased, girls began to receive education, vocational and technical education spread, the idea of compulsory and continuous education grew, student-based education was initiated and teaching became a profession. Therefore, they were significant for Turkey and the Ottoman-ruled countries.