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The period when the relationships between Turkey and Afghanistan was the closest is known to be in Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s time. Atatürk sent to Afghanistan, which was an independent country then, a team of specialists consisting of military and civilian experts, in order to help Afghan people establish a modern education system. Among the ones who founded the first medical school, law school and the school of political sciences at Kabil University were the academicians both with a military or a civilian origin, who volunteered to work in this country. The instructional and educational activities in those faculties have been provided for long years by expert staff consisting of Turkish academicians. The contribution of Turkey to Afghanistan’s education and health welfare has continued until 1960’s. However; beginning with 60’s, when the Afghan regime started to display an inclination towards a Soviet regime, Turkish academicians there had to return to Turkey.